Near-infrared II Photoacoustic Probes for Nitric Oxide Sensing

Melissa Y Lucero, Amanda K East, Jefferson Chan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


In this chapter, we introduce a two-phase tuning approach for developing highly sensitive photoacoustic probes for imaging nitric oxide (NO) in the near-infrared (NIR)-II window. Due to the synthetically challenging nature of current NIR-II dye platforms, our two-phase tuning approach circumvents this issue by first allowing one to tune the reactivity using a synthetically accessible dye. We have used a physical organic workflow to understand the reaction kinetics and identify the most reactive sensing component. The selected reactive trigger is then introduced to phase two where it is appended to a range of well-established NIR-II dyes. This strategy is used to select the ideal photoacoustic probe for NIR-II imaging in vivo. Here, we have detailed procedures for synthesis, in vitro studies, and in vivo imaging.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPhotoacoustic Probes for In Vivo Imaging
EditorsJefferson Chan
PublisherAcademic Press Inc.
Number of pages24
ISBN (Print)978-0-323-85530-3
StatePublished - 2021

Publication series

NameMethods in Enzymology
ISSN (Print)0076-6879
ISSN (Electronic)1557-7988


  • Coloring Agents
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Photoacoustic Techniques
  • Spectrum Analysis
  • NIR-II
  • Two phase tuning
  • NIR-II dye
  • Nitric oxide imaging
  • Near-infrared II

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Near-infrared II Photoacoustic Probes for Nitric Oxide Sensing'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this