Stink bugs comprise a significant and costly pest complex for numerous crops in the US, including row crops, vegetables, and tree fruits and nuts. Most management relies on the use of broad-spectrum and disruptive insecticides with high human and environmental risks associated with them. Growing concerns about pesticide resistance in stink bugs are forcing pest managers to explore safer and more sustainable options. Here, we review the diverse suite of natural enemies of stink bugs in the US, noting that the egg and the late nymphal and adult stages of stink bugs are the most commonly attacked by parasitoids, whereas eggs and young nymphs are the stages most commonly attacked by predators. The effectiveness of stink bugs’ natural enemies varies widely with stink bug species and habitats, influencing the biological control of stink bugs across crops. Historically, biological control of stink bugs has focused on introduction of exotic natural enemies against exotic stink bugs. Conservation and augmentation methods of biological control have received less attention in the US, although there may be good opportunities to utilize these approaches. We identify some considerations for the current and future use of biological control for stink bugs, including the potential for area-wide management approaches.
- importation biological control
- augmentative biological control
- conservation biological control
- area-wide management
- invasive species
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science