The impact of the fur trade on Native American culture has dominated frontier scholarship for over a century. Absent from many of these discussions is the critical role of Native lead mining in the Upper Midwest. Here the Meskwaki and Ho-Chunk conducted mining operations on a truly industrial scale. As a stable resource, lead provided a substantial income as fur bearing populations diminished. The mines eventually drew thousands of prospectors and resulting tensions culminated in the Winnebago and Black Hawk Wars. Subsequent treaties began the rapacious process of extinguishing Native land claims prior to forced removal and dispossession.
|Original language||English (US)|
|State||Published - 2015|