National park entrance fee increase: a conceptual framework

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


With decreasing appropriation from public funding and increasing operational costs, public nature-tourism managers are facing ongoing pressure to increase self-generated revenue, such as entrance fees to sustain current services. However, raising fees often arouses resistance from visitors, and thus managing negative reactions is critical to the success of a new fee initiative. Following a three-step process of rendering conceptual relationships from textual data, this study analyzed a large volume of public comments submitted regarding the National Park Service’s entrance fee increase proposal and developed a conceptual framework to understand support/opposition of fee increases on public lands. The conceptual framework identified five constructs affecting support/opposition of fee increases: right-based opposition to public land fees, distributive justice principles, fee increase magnitude, place attachment, and trust in government. Theoretical and practical implications were also discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Sustainable Tourism
StatePublished - 2020


  • conceptual framework development
  • fee acceptance
  • Nature-based tourism
  • public sector pricing
  • topic modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management

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