Nanoparticulate mineralized collagen glycosaminoglycan materials directly and indirectly inhibit osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activation

Xiaoyan Ren, Qi Zhou, David Foulad, Marley J. Dewey, David Bischoff, Timothy A. Miller, Dean T. Yamaguchi, Brendan A.C. Harley, Justine C. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The ability of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to direct cell fate has generated the potential for developing a materials-only strategy for tissue regeneration. Previously, we described a nanoparticulate mineralized collagen glycosaminoglycan (MC-GAG) material that efficiently induced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and calvarial bone healing without exogenous growth factors or progenitor cell expansion. In this work, we evaluated the interactions between MC-GAG and primary human osteoclasts (hOCs). In the absence of hMSCs, mineralized Col-GAG materials directly inhibited hOC viability, proliferation, and resorption in contrast to nonmineralized Col-GAG, which demonstrated a modest inhibition of resorptive activity only. Cocultures containing differentiating hMSCs with hOCs demonstrated increased hOC-mediated resorption only on Col-GAG while MC-GAG cocultures continued to inhibit resorption. Unlike Col-GAG, hMSCs on MC-GAG expressed increased amounts of osteoprotegerin (OPG) protein, the major endogenous osteoclast inhibitor. Interestingly, OPG expression was found to be antagonized by small mothers against decapentaplegic1/5 (Smad1/5) phosphorylation, an obligate pathway for osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs on MC-GAG, and potentiated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Collectively, these results suggested that the MC-GAG material both directly inhibited the osteoclast viability, proliferation, and resorptive activity as well as induced hMSCs to secrete osteoprotegerin, an antiosteoclastogenic factor, via a signalling pathway distinct from osteogenic differentiation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)823-834
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2019


  • bone regeneration
  • bone resorption
  • collagen glycosaminoglycan
  • nanoparticle
  • osteoclast
  • osteoprotegerin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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