Genevieve S. Bondy, Kenneth A. Voss, Wanda M. Haschek

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Many species of fungi colonize food crops such as rice, corn, wheat, barley, oats, peanuts, cottonseed, and soybeans which are the basic ingredients of human and animal foods. Under certain conditions, fungi produce secondary fungal metabolites known as mycotoxins, which cause biochemical, physiologic, and/or pathologic changes in many species. Mycotoxicoses, syndromes resulting from poisoning by mycotoxins, occur worldwide and have been recognized for centuries. The mycotoxins of most concern are aflatoxins, fumonisins, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes such as deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin, and ergot alkaloids. The main route of exposure is ingestion via the diet, so mycotoxins are a food and feed safety concern. While severe life-threatening toxicoses are now uncommon in humans in developed countries, exposure to the carcinogenic mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1, is a major cause of liver disease, including cancer, in Africa and China. In addition, the potential for subclinical disease due to low-level chronic exposure causes significant agricultural losses due to export restrictions on grains and production losses in livestock. Outbreaks of mycotoxicoses in livestock and companion animals occur periodically. Mycotoxins continue to attract worldwide attention because of their impacts on human health and agricultural losses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHaschek and Rousseaux's Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology, Volume 3
Subtitle of host publicationEnvironmental Toxicologic Pathology and Major Toxicant Classes
Number of pages96
ISBN (Electronic)9780443161537
StatePublished - Jan 1 2023


  • Aflatoxin
  • Alternaria toxins
  • Deoxynivalenol
  • Emerging mycotoxins
  • Ergot
  • Fumonisin
  • Fusarium toxins
  • Mycotoxins
  • Ochratoxin
  • Trichothecenes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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