Mutant spectra analysis at hisG46 in Salmonella typhimurium strain YG1029 induced by mammalian S9- and plant-activated aromatic amines

Young H. Ju, Michael J. Plewa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Mutant spectra analysis was conducted with spontaneous hisG46 revertants of Salmonella typhimurium strain YG1029 and revertants induced by the plant- and mammalian S9-activation of benzidine and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP). Under preincubation conditions, YG1029 cells were exposed to benizidine or 4-ABP with mammalian S9 activation or to a high molecular weight fraction that contained the plant-activated products. The induced revertants were isolated at mutagen concentrations that caused an increased mutant frequency of approximately 4- to 10-fold above background. Genomic DNA from each revertant was isolated and the hisG region was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using a series of specific probes and a modified version of the ECL3's-oligolabelling and detection system, each of the six possible base-pair substitution mutations at hisG46 that leads to a reversion event was determined. Of the YG1029 spontaneous revertants, transition mutations were 31.8% and transversion mutations were 68.2%. The YG1029 spontaneous mutant spectrum differed significantly from the spontaneous spectrum of TA1535 but did not significantly differ from the spontaneous TA100 mutant spectrum. The differences of the spontaneous mutant spectra among these highly related strains illustrate that the introduction of the plasmid pKM101 into S. typhimurium increased the frequency of transversions (CCC→ACC; CCC→CAC) and reduced site 2 (CCC→CTC) transitions. With plant-activated benzidine, 21.1% of recovered revertants resulted from transitions and 78.9% from transversions while S9 activated-benzidine induced revertants were recovered as 14.2% from transition and 85.8% from transversion mutations. Plant-activated 4-ABP recovered 20.0% transitions and 80.0% transversions. S9-activated 4-ABP-induced 21.4% transitions and 78.6% transversions. Chi-square analysis of mutant spectra indicated that the DNA lesions that resulted in reversion at the hisG46 allele induced by plant-activated benzidine or 4-ABP were different from those generated after mammalian S9 activation of these promutagens. The plant-activated benzidine and 4-ABP induced statistically identical mutant spectra. Also, the mammalian-activated benzidine and 4-ABP induced statistically similar mutant spectra. These data show that the plant-activated and mammalian-activated aromatic amine products inflicted different types or distributions of DNA lesions that were reflected in the resulting induced mutant spectra.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)47-60
Number of pages14
JournalTeratogenesis Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
StatePublished - 2003


  • 4-aminobiphenyl
  • Benzidine
  • Mutation spectra
  • Plant-activation
  • S9-activation
  • Salmonella
  • Salmonella typhimurium
  • YG1029
  • hisG46

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Genetics
  • Toxicology
  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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