Muscle Sodium Accumulation in Kidney Failure: Physiological Impact and Mitigation Strategies

Hsin Yu Fang, Kenneth R. Wilund

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Skeletal muscle has recently been recognized as a nonosmotic sodium reservoir that buffers dietary sodium. The in-vivo quantification of muscle sodium is based on a novel technology, sodium magnetic resonance imaging. Studies using this technology have shown that muscle sodium accumulation may be a clinical complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review aims to summarize existing evidence on muscle sodium accumulation in patients with CKD and to identify knowledge gaps and topics for further research. The literature examined in this review suggests that muscle sodium accumulation is associated with CKD progression and pathological conditions. However, the causalities between muscle sodium accumulation and its related pathological changes are still elusive mainly because it is still uncertain where and how sodium accumulates in the muscle. More research is needed to address these gaps and determine if muscle sodium is a new intervention target in CKD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S93-S102
JournalJournal of Renal Nutrition
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2023


  • 23Na-MRI
  • CKD
  • Kidney failure
  • Muscle sodium accumulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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