The present disclosure provides a biological machine comprising a skeleton comprising at least one hydrogel strip and at least two hydrogel bases, and at least one bioactuator, the at least one bioactuator comprising at least one muscle ring, the muscle ring comprising skeletal muscle cells, wherein the muscle ring is tethered around the at least two pillars. The muscle ring can comprises skeletal muscle, and skeletal muscle innervated with motor neurons, allowing chemical control of muscle contraction. Methods of making the biological machine is also provided.
Original languageEnglish (US)
U.S. patent number10906169
StatePublished - Feb 2 2021


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