Multivariate statistical evaluation of groundwater compliance data from the Illinois Basin - Decatur Project

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Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate groundwater quality data acquired in the pre-injection and injection periods for the Illinois Basin - Decatur Project (IBDP), a large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) project located in Decatur, Illinois, USA. For the pre-injection and injection periods three principal components explained 76.6% and 80.0% of the total data variance, respectively. Analysis of the pre-injection data set determined that highly positive loadings for total dissolved solids, chloride, bromide, sodium, magnesium, potassium, and electrical conductance designated the first component (PC1) as the salinity factor. High loadings for calcium, iron, and sulfate in component two (PC2) represents an oxidation-reduction component. The third component (PC3) represents groundwater acidity because of highly positive loading of pH. For the injection data set the variables contributed to the first component are bromide, sodium, total dissolved solids, chloride, electrical conductance, potassium, sulfate, iron, and calcium. Sulfate, magnesium, and calcium contribute to the second component and pH to the third component and represent salinity, dissolution, and acidity of groundwater. The results of the PC analysis indicate that water-rock interactions are the primary mechanism governing groundwater quality during both periods. The results of this analysis indicate that CO2 injection activities have not impacted the quality of the shallow groundwater in the project area.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3182-3194
Number of pages13
JournalEnergy Procedia
StatePublished - 2014
Event12th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, GHGT 2014 - Austin, United States
Duration: Oct 5 2014Oct 9 2014


  • Carbon storage
  • Groundwater
  • Illinois basin
  • Multivariate evaluation
  • Principal component analysis
  • Water quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Energy


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