The two-scale Hybrid Mixture Theory-based mass balance and momentum balance equations, the multiscale energy balance equation, and the viscoelastic stress equation were solved to obtain the moisture, temperature, strain, and stress distributions during bananas’ convective drying. The model was validated against experimental average moisture contents (mean absolute errors (MAEs): 0.022–0.121 g/g solids), center and near-the-surface temperatures (MAEs: 0.6–7.7 °C), and volumetric strain (MAEs: 0.06–0.13). The model was then used to evaluate the effectiveness of the fan on/off strategy in reducing stress cracking compared to continuous drying. Simulation results of axial stress gradients and experimental results of global crack indices using a 5-point hedonic scale showed that the fan on/off strategy effectively reduced stress cracking compared to continuous drying. Thus, drying bananas at 60 °C by turning the fan on and off intermittently can be applied to reduce stress cracking in the product while requiring only 1.76% more energy compared to continuous drying.
- hybrid mixture theory
- multiscale modeling
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry