Multiscale modeling of transport mechanisms, strain, and stress in bananas during drying

Fidele M. Abedi, Yuxiang Liu, Pawan S. Takhar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The two-scale Hybrid Mixture Theory-based mass balance and momentum balance equations, the multiscale energy balance equation, and the viscoelastic stress equation were solved to obtain the moisture, temperature, strain, and stress distributions during bananas’ convective drying. The model was validated against experimental average moisture contents (mean absolute errors (MAEs): 0.022–0.121 g/g solids), center and near-the-surface temperatures (MAEs: 0.6–7.7 °C), and volumetric strain (MAEs: 0.06–0.13). The model was then used to evaluate the effectiveness of the fan on/off strategy in reducing stress cracking compared to continuous drying. Simulation results of axial stress gradients and experimental results of global crack indices using a 5-point hedonic scale showed that the fan on/off strategy effectively reduced stress cracking compared to continuous drying. Thus, drying bananas at 60 °C by turning the fan on and off intermittently can be applied to reduce stress cracking in the product while requiring only 1.76% more energy compared to continuous drying.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)540-562
Number of pages23
JournalDrying Technology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2024


  • Drying
  • hybrid mixture theory
  • multiscale modeling
  • strain
  • stress
  • stress-cracking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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