Multiphysics modeling of continuous casting of stainless steel

Matthew L.S. Zappulla, Seong Mook Cho, Seid Koric, Hyoung Jun Lee, Seon Hyo Kim, Brian G. Thomas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


During the solidification of stainless steel, the mechanical behavior of the solidifying shell follows nonlinear elastic-viscoplastic constitutive laws depending on metallurgical phase fraction calculations (liquid, ferrite and austenite). A multiphysics model that couples thermal and mechanical behavior in a Lagrangian reference frame, including both classical time-independent plasticity and creep, with turbulent fluid flow in the liquid phase in an Eulerian frame, is applied to determine realistic temperature and stress distributions in the solidifying shell of stainless steel in a commercial continuous caster. Compositional effects are incorporated through the use of phase diagrams to define the phase fraction variations with temperature during the process. The behavior at these high temperatures can be adequately captured using specific constitutive equations for each phase and careful decisions about switching between them. Results for a 409L ferritic stainless steel show that, due to its phase fraction history, solidification stresses differ significantly from those in plain carbon steels. Specifically, they include a secondary sub-surface compression peak due to phase change expansion between γ-austenite and δ-ferrite through the thickness of the shell.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number116469
JournalJournal of Materials Processing Technology
StatePublished - Apr 2020


  • Constitutive models
  • Elastic-viscoplastic material
  • Finite element method
  • Solidification
  • Steel casting
  • Thermal stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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