Multimodal interactions with virtual manipulatives: Supporting young children's math learning

Seungoh Paek, Dan Hoffman, John B. Black

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study investigates how multimodal interactions impact learning in digital learning environments. More specifically, the study argues that modern virtual manipulatives should offer a rich sensory experience by presenting information visually, aurally, and kinesthetically and that carefully designed perceptual experiences will facilitate learning in young children. To test this hypothesis, sixty (N = 60) second grade students were randomly assigned to learn multiplication using software designed to vary the aural and kinesthetic experience while holding the visual presentation constant. The results reveal that both aural and kinesthetic interactions increased learning outcomes but in different ways and at different points. The paper concludes with a full discussion of the results as well as their theoretical and practical implications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)117-120
Number of pages4
JournalComputer-Supported Collaborative Learning Conference, CSCL
StatePublished - Oct 31 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Education


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