Multidose pharmacokinetics and safety of a modified, compounded theophylline product in dogs

Jennifer M. Reinhart, Claudia Perkowski, Courtney Lester, Valeria Campos, Saki Kadotani, Zhong Li, Brendan C. McKiernan, Ryan Fries

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Theophylline is used in canine medicine for the management of chronic bronchitis and bradyarrhythmias, yet no species-validated commercial products are available. This study reports the single-dose and multidose pharmacokinetics and safety of a modified, compounded theophylline (MCT) product readily available from a well-established, USP-compliant compounding pharmacy, which may be a suitable and reliable source for theophylline for dogs. Eleven dogs underwent serial plasma theophylline measurement following 10 mg/kg MCT PO. After a 7 days washout, dogs received 10 mg/kg MCT PO q12h and serial plasma theophylline quantification was repeated after the ninth dose. Dogs were monitored for potential adverse effects. For the nine dogs that completed the study, plasma theophylline concentrations were between 5 and 30 μg/ml for 91 +/− 15% of the dosing interval. There was no significant difference in half-life between single-dose and multidose administration. The most common adverse effects reported were mild and included agitation, excitement, and increased activity. The results of this study support the use of 10 mg/kg MCT administered twice daily as a starting dosage in dogs. This regimen appears safe, achieves appropriate plasma drug concentrations in most dogs, and does not cause significant changes in pharmacokinetic properties at steady state. Because compounded drugs do not undergo consistent testing for identity, quality, strength, purity, and stability, results of research described in reports using compounded products may not be reproducible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)902-909
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • airway
  • bradyarrhythmia
  • bronchodilator
  • chronic bronchitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • veterinary(all)


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