Multi-regime arrival rate uniform delay models for signalized intersections

Rahim F. Benekohal, Yoassry M. El-Zohairy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents the development and validation of uniform delay models for coordinated signalized intersections. The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) identifies one uniform and five non-uniform (platoon) arrival types. Delays for non-uniform arrival cases are computed by applying progression adjustment factors (PFs) to the delay for uniform arrival case. The range of PF is from 0% to 256%. We found that the PF approach produced accurate results for only one-half of cases. This paper presents an Arrival-Based approach that eliminates the needs for applying PF. The AB approach directly considers the effects of quality of progression in formulating delay models. It uses different flow rates for vehicles within and outside platoons. A total of 11 different delay models were derived to cover all arrival cases. Data from three different states were used for validation of AB delay models. The results indicate that AB models provided accurate results for all arrival types. However, HCM uniform delay model was not accurate for Arrival Types 1, 4 and 6. Furthermore, the results of cycle-by-cycle delay analyses showed that the difference between field delays and AB models were not significant, but that was not the case for the HCM model. The AB models can be simplified to yield the HCM uniform delay model, if a single regime arrival rate is assumed. Single regime arrival rate implies that the flow rate for vehicles in platoon is the same as those arriving randomly. For only the uniform arrival case, the AB delay model is identical to the HCM delay model; thus making the HCM uniform delay model a special case of AB models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)625-667
Number of pages43
JournalTransportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice
Issue number7
StatePublished - Aug 2001


  • AB delay model
  • Coordinated signalized intersections
  • HCM delay model
  • Platoon duration
  • Progression adjustment factors
  • Uniform delay

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Transportation
  • Management Science and Operations Research


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