Moving forward: A review of continuous kinetics and kinematics during handcycling propulsion

Kellie M. Halloran, Michael D.K. Focht, Alexander Teague, Joseph Peters, Ian Rice, Mariana E. Kersh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Wheelchair users (WCUs) face high rates of shoulder overuse injuries. As exercise is recommended to reduce cardiovascular disease prevalent among WCUs, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the mechanisms behind shoulder soft-tissue injury in WCUs. Understanding the kinetics and kinematics during upper-limb propulsion is the first step toward evaluating soft-tissue injury risk in WCUs. This paper examines continuous kinetic and kinematic data available in the literature. Attach-unit and recumbent handcycling are examined and compared. Athletic modes of propulsion such as recumbent handcycling are important considering the higher contact forces, speed, and power outputs experienced during these activities that could put users at increased risk of injury. Understanding the underlying kinetics and kinematics during various propulsion modes can lend insight into shoulder loading, and therefore injury risk, during these activities and inform future exercise guidelines for WCUs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number111779
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
StatePublished - Oct 2023


  • Handcrank
  • Propulsion
  • Shoulder
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Wheelchair

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Rehabilitation
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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