Motivation, instructional design, flow, and academic achievement at a Korean online university: a structural equation modeling study

Young Ju Joo, Eunjung Oh, Su Mi Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The purpose of this study is to examine the structural relationships among self-efficacy, intrinsic value, test anxiety, instructional design, flow, and achievement among students at a Korean online university. To address research questions, the researchers administered online surveys to 963 college students at an online university in Korea enrolled in a Computer Application course. Structural equation modeling was conducted to investigate the structural relationships among the variables. Findings indicated that (1) self-efficacy and instructional design had statistically significant direct effects on flow, (2) self-efficacy, intrinsic value, and flow had statistically significant direct effects on achievement, and (3) flow mediates self-efficacy and achievement, and instructional design and achievement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)28-46
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Computing in Higher Education
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015



  • Achievement
  • Flow
  • Instructional design
  • Motivation
  • Online learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education

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