Advances in bioengineering, material chemistry, and developmental biology have led to the design of three-dimensional (3D) culture systems that better resemble the surrounding structure and chemistry of the in situ niches of cells in tissues. This study was designed to characterize and compare porcine adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) and bone-marrow-derived stem cells (BMSC) induced to differentiate toward osteogenic and adipogenic lineages in vitro by using a 3D alginate hydrogel. The morphology and gene expression of the two cell populations during differentiation were analyzed. Both ADSC and BMSC showed morphological evidence of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Expression patterns of genes characteristic of the onset of osteogenic differentiation (ALP, COL1A1, SPARC, SPP1) were low at the beginning of culture and generally increased during the period of differentiation up to 28 days in culture. Expression of genes associated with adipogenic differentiation (ACSL1, ADFP, ADIPOQ, CD36, DBI, DGAT2, PPARG, SCD) was consistently increased in ADSC cultured in alginate hydrogel relative to the start of differentiation. However, adipogenic gene expression of BMSC cultured in alginate hydrogel was more limited when compared with that of ADSC. Evaluation of cell numbers (via the MTT staining assay) suggested a greater viability of BMSC under osteogenic conditions in alginate hydrogels than under adipogenic conditions, whereas ADSC had greater viability under adipogenic conditions than under osteogenic conditions. This study thus provides an important initial evaluation of ADSC and BMSC seeded and differentiated toward the osteogenic and adipogenic cell lineages in a 3D alginate hydrogel in vitro.
- Adipose-derived stem cells
- Alginate hydrogel
- Bone-marrow-derived stem cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Cell Biology