Moroccan Jews and the Spanish colonial imaginary, 1903–1951

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This article explores the relationship between Spanish colonialism and Moroccan Jews. Throughout the first half of the twentieth century, Spanish writers and politicians revived Spain’s Jewish heritage and used it to fortify cultural and political ties with Sephardic Jewish communities across the Mediterranean, and especially in Morocco. This revival of Spain’s Jewish identity has often been associated with the liberal ‘Philo-Sephardic’ movement of the early twentieth century, but, as I argue in this article, Philo-Sephardism survived until the end of the colonial period and implicated, along the way, Spaniards of all ideological stripes, from liberals to fascists. In both its liberal and fascist iterations, Philo-Sephardism was a platform for challenging France’s cultural influence among Moroccan Jews and for asserting Spain’s legitimacy as a colonial power. Philo-Sephardism was also strengthened and shaped by the extensive participation of Moroccan Jews, who contributed to the movement by collaborating with Spanish scholars and incorporating Philo-Sephardic discourses into their representations of Moroccan Jewish life. In what follows, I examine the contributions that Moroccan Jews made to Philo-Sephardism and especially to the academic and cultural institutions created under Francoism, such as the Maimonides Institute in Tetouan. I place particular emphasis on Isaac Benarroch Pinto’s novella ‘Indianos tetuaníes,’ published by the General Franco Institute for Hispano-Arab Research in 1951. This fascinating but virtually unknown literary text illustrates how some Moroccan Jews inserted themselves within Francoist culture and within Spanish imperial projects that wove together the histories of Spain, Morocco, and Latin America.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)86-110
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of North African Studies
Volume24
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 2019

Fingerprint

twentieth century
Jew
cultural influence
Spain
colonialism
Morocco
colonial power
Spaniard
history
cultural institution
colonial age
politician
Latin America
legitimacy
writer
France
participation
discourse
community
project

Keywords

  • Franco
  • Jews
  • Morocco
  • Philo-Sephardism
  • Spain
  • colonialism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Development
  • Political Science and International Relations

Cite this

Moroccan Jews and the Spanish colonial imaginary, 1903–1951. / Calderwood, Eric Stickley.

In: Journal of North African Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2019, p. 86-110.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{53fc8a03ec234eeca1f4e1bdb4103901,
title = "Moroccan Jews and the Spanish colonial imaginary, 1903–1951",
abstract = "This article explores the relationship between Spanish colonialism and Moroccan Jews. Throughout the first half of the twentieth century, Spanish writers and politicians revived Spain’s Jewish heritage and used it to fortify cultural and political ties with Sephardic Jewish communities across the Mediterranean, and especially in Morocco. This revival of Spain’s Jewish identity has often been associated with the liberal ‘Philo-Sephardic’ movement of the early twentieth century, but, as I argue in this article, Philo-Sephardism survived until the end of the colonial period and implicated, along the way, Spaniards of all ideological stripes, from liberals to fascists. In both its liberal and fascist iterations, Philo-Sephardism was a platform for challenging France’s cultural influence among Moroccan Jews and for asserting Spain’s legitimacy as a colonial power. Philo-Sephardism was also strengthened and shaped by the extensive participation of Moroccan Jews, who contributed to the movement by collaborating with Spanish scholars and incorporating Philo-Sephardic discourses into their representations of Moroccan Jewish life. In what follows, I examine the contributions that Moroccan Jews made to Philo-Sephardism and especially to the academic and cultural institutions created under Francoism, such as the Maimonides Institute in Tetouan. I place particular emphasis on Isaac Benarroch Pinto’s novella ‘Indianos tetuan{\'i}es,’ published by the General Franco Institute for Hispano-Arab Research in 1951. This fascinating but virtually unknown literary text illustrates how some Moroccan Jews inserted themselves within Francoist culture and within Spanish imperial projects that wove together the histories of Spain, Morocco, and Latin America.",
keywords = "Franco, Jews, Morocco, Philo-Sephardism, Spain, colonialism",
author = "Calderwood, {Eric Stickley}",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1080/13629387.2018.1459261",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "24",
pages = "86--110",
journal = "Journal of North African Studies",
issn = "1362-9387",
publisher = "Routledge",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Moroccan Jews and the Spanish colonial imaginary, 1903–1951

AU - Calderwood, Eric Stickley

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - This article explores the relationship between Spanish colonialism and Moroccan Jews. Throughout the first half of the twentieth century, Spanish writers and politicians revived Spain’s Jewish heritage and used it to fortify cultural and political ties with Sephardic Jewish communities across the Mediterranean, and especially in Morocco. This revival of Spain’s Jewish identity has often been associated with the liberal ‘Philo-Sephardic’ movement of the early twentieth century, but, as I argue in this article, Philo-Sephardism survived until the end of the colonial period and implicated, along the way, Spaniards of all ideological stripes, from liberals to fascists. In both its liberal and fascist iterations, Philo-Sephardism was a platform for challenging France’s cultural influence among Moroccan Jews and for asserting Spain’s legitimacy as a colonial power. Philo-Sephardism was also strengthened and shaped by the extensive participation of Moroccan Jews, who contributed to the movement by collaborating with Spanish scholars and incorporating Philo-Sephardic discourses into their representations of Moroccan Jewish life. In what follows, I examine the contributions that Moroccan Jews made to Philo-Sephardism and especially to the academic and cultural institutions created under Francoism, such as the Maimonides Institute in Tetouan. I place particular emphasis on Isaac Benarroch Pinto’s novella ‘Indianos tetuaníes,’ published by the General Franco Institute for Hispano-Arab Research in 1951. This fascinating but virtually unknown literary text illustrates how some Moroccan Jews inserted themselves within Francoist culture and within Spanish imperial projects that wove together the histories of Spain, Morocco, and Latin America.

AB - This article explores the relationship between Spanish colonialism and Moroccan Jews. Throughout the first half of the twentieth century, Spanish writers and politicians revived Spain’s Jewish heritage and used it to fortify cultural and political ties with Sephardic Jewish communities across the Mediterranean, and especially in Morocco. This revival of Spain’s Jewish identity has often been associated with the liberal ‘Philo-Sephardic’ movement of the early twentieth century, but, as I argue in this article, Philo-Sephardism survived until the end of the colonial period and implicated, along the way, Spaniards of all ideological stripes, from liberals to fascists. In both its liberal and fascist iterations, Philo-Sephardism was a platform for challenging France’s cultural influence among Moroccan Jews and for asserting Spain’s legitimacy as a colonial power. Philo-Sephardism was also strengthened and shaped by the extensive participation of Moroccan Jews, who contributed to the movement by collaborating with Spanish scholars and incorporating Philo-Sephardic discourses into their representations of Moroccan Jewish life. In what follows, I examine the contributions that Moroccan Jews made to Philo-Sephardism and especially to the academic and cultural institutions created under Francoism, such as the Maimonides Institute in Tetouan. I place particular emphasis on Isaac Benarroch Pinto’s novella ‘Indianos tetuaníes,’ published by the General Franco Institute for Hispano-Arab Research in 1951. This fascinating but virtually unknown literary text illustrates how some Moroccan Jews inserted themselves within Francoist culture and within Spanish imperial projects that wove together the histories of Spain, Morocco, and Latin America.

KW - Franco

KW - Jews

KW - Morocco

KW - Philo-Sephardism

KW - Spain

KW - colonialism

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85045105934&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85045105934&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/13629387.2018.1459261

DO - 10.1080/13629387.2018.1459261

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85045105934

VL - 24

SP - 86

EP - 110

JO - Journal of North African Studies

JF - Journal of North African Studies

SN - 1362-9387

IS - 1

ER -