Monolithic 3D integration of 2D materials-based electronics towards ultimate edge computing solutions

Ji Hoon Kang, Heechang Shin, Ki Seok Kim, Min Kyu Song, Doyoon Lee, Yuan Meng, Chanyeol Choi, Jun Min Suh, Beom Jin Kim, Hyunseok Kim, Anh Tuan Hoang, Bo In Park, Guanyu Zhou, Suresh Sundaram, Phuong Vuong, Jiho Shin, Jinyeong Choe, Zhihao Xu, Rehan Younas, Justin S. KimSangmoon Han, Sangho Lee, Sun Ok Kim, Beomseok Kang, Seungju Seo, Hyojung Ahn, Seunghwan Seo, Kate Reidy, Eugene Park, Sungchul Mun, Min Chul Park, Suyoun Lee, Hyung Jun Kim, Hyun S. Kum, Peng Lin, Christopher Hinkle, Abdallah Ougazzaden, Jong Hyun Ahn, Jeehwan Kim, Sang Hoon Bae

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Three-dimensional (3D) hetero-integration technology is poised to revolutionize the field of electronics by stacking functional layers vertically, thereby creating novel 3D circuity architectures with high integration density and unparalleled multifunctionality. However, the conventional 3D integration technique involves complex wafer processing and intricate interlayer wiring. Here we demonstrate monolithic 3D integration of two-dimensional, material-based artificial intelligence (AI)-processing hardware with ultimate integrability and multifunctionality. A total of six layers of transistor and memristor arrays were vertically integrated into a 3D nanosystem to perform AI tasks, by peeling and stacking of AI processing layers made from bottom-up synthesized two-dimensional materials. This fully monolithic-3D-integrated AI system substantially reduces processing time, voltage drops, latency and footprint due to its densely packed AI processing layers with dense interlayer connectivity. The successful demonstration of this monolithic-3D-integrated AI system will not only provide a material-level solution for hetero-integration of electronics, but also pave the way for unprecedented multifunctional computing hardware with ultimate parallelism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1470-1477
Number of pages8
JournalNature Materials
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2023
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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