Molecular systematics of the suborder Trogiomorpha (Insecta: Psocodea: 'Psocoptera')

Kazunori Yoshizawa, Charles Lienhard, Kevin P. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Phylogenetic relationships among extant families in the suborder Trogiomorpha (Insecta: Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') were inferred from partial sequences of the nuclear 18S rDNA and Histone 3 and mitochondrial 16S rDNA genes. Analyses of these data produced trees that largely supported the traditional classification; however, monophyly of the infraorder Psocathropetae (= Psyllipsocidae + Prionoglarididae) was not recovered. Instead, the family Psyllipsocidae was recovered as the sister taxon to the infraorder Atropetae (= Lepidopsocidae + Trogiidae + Psoquillidae), and the Prionoglarididae was recovered as sister to all other families in the suborder. Character states previously used to diagnose Psocathropetae are shown to be plesiomorphic. The sister group relationship between Psyllipsocidae and Atropetae was supported by two morphological apomorphies: the presence of a paraproctal anal spine and an anteriorly opened phallosome. Based on these sequence data and morphological observations, we propose a new classification scheme for the Trogiomorpha as follows: infraorder Prionoglaridetae (Prionoglarididae), infraorder Psyllipsocetae (Psyllipsocidae), infraorder Atropetae (Lepidopsocidae, Trogiidae, Psoquillidae).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)287-299
Number of pages13
JournalZoological Journal of the Linnean Society
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2006


  • 16S rDNA gene
  • 18S rDNA gene
  • Histone 3
  • Morphology
  • Phylogeny

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Animal Science and Zoology


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