The synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is an active ingredient of thousands of commercial herbicides. Multiple species of bacteria degrade 2,4-D via a pathway initiated by the Fe(II) and α-ketoglutarate (Fe/αKG)-dependent aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenases (AADs). Recently, genes encoding 2 AADs have been deployed commercially in herbicide-tolerant crops. Some AADs can also inactivate chiral phenoxypropionate and aryloxyphenoxypropionate (AOPP) herbicides, albeit with varying substrate enantio-selectivities. Certain AAD enzymes, such as AAD-1, have expanded utility in weed control systems by enabling the use of diverse modes of action with a single trait. Here, we report 1) the use of a genomic context-based approach to identify 59 additional members of the AAD class, 2) the biochemical characterization of AAD-2 from Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA 110 as a catalyst to degrade (S)-stereoisomers of chiral synthetic auxins and AOPP herbicides, 3) spectroscopic data that demonstrate the canonical ferryl complex in the AAD-1 reaction, and 4) crystal structures of representatives of the AAD class. Structures of AAD-1, an (R)-enantiomer substrate-specific enzyme, in complexes with a phenoxypropionate synthetic auxin or with AOPP herbicides and of AAD-2, which has the opposite (S)-enantiomeric substrate specificity, reveal the structural basis for stereoselectivity and provide insights into a common catalytic mechanism.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - 2019|
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