Modulation of innate immune signaling by nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) in the family Arteriviridae

Mingyuan Han, Dongwan Yoo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Arteriviruses infect immune cells and may cause persistence in infected hosts. Inefficient induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I IFNs are observed during infection of this group of viruses, suggesting that they may have evolved to escape the host immune surveillance for efficient survival. Recent studies have identified viral proteins regulating the innate immune signaling, and among these, nsp1 (nonstructural protein 1) is the most potent IFN antagonist. For porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), individual subunits (nsp1α and nsp1β) of nsp1 suppress type I IFN production. In particular, PRRSV-nsp1α degrades CREB (cyclic AMP responsive element binding)-binding protein (CBP), a key component of the IFN enhanceosome, whereas PRRSV-nsp1β degrades karyopherin-α1 which is known to mediate the nuclear import of ISGF3 (interferon-stimulated gene factor 3). All individual subunits of nsp1 of PRRSV, equine arteritis virus (EAV), lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) appear to contain IFN suppressive activities. As with PRRSV-nsp1α, CBP degradation is evident by LDV-nsp1α and partly by SHFV-nsp1γ. This review summarizes the biogenesis and the role of individual subunits of nsp1 of arteriviruses for innate immune modulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)100-109
Number of pages10
JournalVirus Research
StatePublished - Dec 19 2014


  • Arterivirus
  • CREB-binding protein
  • Innate immunity
  • Interferon signaling
  • Nsp1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases


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