Modification of the microstructure of tef [Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter] flour ultrasonicated at different temperatures. Impact on its techno-functional and rheological properties

Antonio J. Vela, Marina Villanueva, Oguz K. Ozturk, Bruce Hamaker, Felicidad Ronda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Tef flour comes from a nutritionally-rich ancient grain gaining increasing interest in gluten-free market. Gluten-free sources are modified by different means to improve their functionality. Ultrasound treatment (US) alters flours' structure and leads to physically modified flours with a wider application range. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of US treatments of moderate treatment time, 10 min, and high concentration of the aqueous flour dispersion, 25%, on the microstructural, starch damage, apparent amylose content, techno-functional, pasting and rheological properties of two tef flour varieties, white and brown. Temperature was varied (20, 40, 45, 50, and 55 °C) to modulate the impact of sonication. US treatments led to general particle fragmentation which markedly increased starch damage and lightness (L*) values. Apparent amylose content was higher after ultrasonication, as consequence of molecular fragmentation due to cavitation. Increased starch granules’ exposed area led to enhanced interaction with water, promoting the water absorption index (WAI) and swelling power (SP) of treated flours. Pasting properties showed increased pasting temperatures as well as decreased viscometric profiles with lower breakdown viscosities, indicative of starch rearrangement improved by increasing temperature. Rheological properties indicated higher consistency in gels after US treatments, with improved ability to withstand stress and lower values of tan(δ)1 reflecting a higher solid-like behavior and higher strength of the gel. Temperature was found to be a crucial variable during US treatments, showing an improved degree of modification at higher temperatures in ultrasonicated tef flours, following the same trend in both varieties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100456
JournalCurrent Research in Food Science
Volume6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Gel rheological properties
  • Hydration properties
  • Pasting properties
  • Tef flour
  • Ultrasound treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

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