Modelling of Site Amplification via Large Scale Nonlinear Simulations with Applications to North America

Youssef M A Hashash, Joseph Harmon, Okan Ilhan, Jonathan P. Stewart, Ellen M. Rathje, Kenneth W. Campbell, Walter J. Silva, Christine A. Goulet

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

Abstract

This paper presents large scale simulation-based modelling of site amplification in two regions, Central and Eastern North America (CENA) and the Western Unites States (WUS). For CENA, a parametric study is developed with 1.2 million 1-D site response analyses (0.58 million of each linear elastic and nonlinear analyses) to represent the variability and uncertainty of site geologies, material properties, and ground motions in CENA and their impacts on site amplification. These simulations are used to develop a suite of linear (L) and nonlinear (NL) site amplification functions for the response spectrum (RS) and smoothed Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS). The functions for each spectrum are composed of independent, additive linear, and nonlinear terms. While time averaged shear wave velocity in the top 30 m of a site (VS30) is a key input parameter, it is shown that including site period (Tnat) effects into the linear site amplification functions significantly improves these functions. Nonlinear amplification can be modelled as a function of VS30 and either rock outcrop peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration (SA) at rock outcrop as the driver of nonlinearity. The depth to hard rock plays a similar role to Tnat. A subset of models is developed from the CENA dataset for sites with strong, shallow VS impedance ratios resulting from hard rock present less than 30 m from the ground surface. A smaller but similar study of 30 thousand site amplification simulations representative of WUS site conditions is used to develop linear and nonlinear site amplification models which show similar amplification behaviors as the models developed for CENA. These large-scale simulations are enabled through the development of highly optimized, efficient nonlinear site response software, multi-core batch analyses, and efficient data structures to analyze the nearly two terabytes of simulation data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)523-537
Number of pages15
JournalGeotechnical Special Publication
Volume2018-June
Issue numberGSP 291
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018
Event5th Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics Conference: Seismic Hazard Analysis, Earthquake Ground Motions, and Regional-Scale Assessment, GEESDV 2018 - Austin, United States
Duration: Jun 10 2018Jun 13 2018

Fingerprint

Amplification
amplification
modeling
simulation
Rocks
hard rock
outcrop
North America
Shear waves
rock
nonlinearity
ground motion
wave velocity
Data structures
S-wave
Materials properties
software

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Architecture
  • Building and Construction
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Cite this

Hashash, Y. M. A., Harmon, J., Ilhan, O., Stewart, J. P., Rathje, E. M., Campbell, K. W., ... Goulet, C. A. (2018). Modelling of Site Amplification via Large Scale Nonlinear Simulations with Applications to North America. Geotechnical Special Publication, 2018-June(GSP 291), 523-537. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784481462.051

Modelling of Site Amplification via Large Scale Nonlinear Simulations with Applications to North America. / Hashash, Youssef M A; Harmon, Joseph; Ilhan, Okan; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Rathje, Ellen M.; Campbell, Kenneth W.; Silva, Walter J.; Goulet, Christine A.

In: Geotechnical Special Publication, Vol. 2018-June, No. GSP 291, 01.01.2018, p. 523-537.

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

Hashash, YMA, Harmon, J, Ilhan, O, Stewart, JP, Rathje, EM, Campbell, KW, Silva, WJ & Goulet, CA 2018, 'Modelling of Site Amplification via Large Scale Nonlinear Simulations with Applications to North America', Geotechnical Special Publication, vol. 2018-June, no. GSP 291, pp. 523-537. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784481462.051
Hashash, Youssef M A ; Harmon, Joseph ; Ilhan, Okan ; Stewart, Jonathan P. ; Rathje, Ellen M. ; Campbell, Kenneth W. ; Silva, Walter J. ; Goulet, Christine A. / Modelling of Site Amplification via Large Scale Nonlinear Simulations with Applications to North America. In: Geotechnical Special Publication. 2018 ; Vol. 2018-June, No. GSP 291. pp. 523-537.
@article{3d4ac04235134902b67968f1318d19a4,
title = "Modelling of Site Amplification via Large Scale Nonlinear Simulations with Applications to North America",
abstract = "This paper presents large scale simulation-based modelling of site amplification in two regions, Central and Eastern North America (CENA) and the Western Unites States (WUS). For CENA, a parametric study is developed with 1.2 million 1-D site response analyses (0.58 million of each linear elastic and nonlinear analyses) to represent the variability and uncertainty of site geologies, material properties, and ground motions in CENA and their impacts on site amplification. These simulations are used to develop a suite of linear (L) and nonlinear (NL) site amplification functions for the response spectrum (RS) and smoothed Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS). The functions for each spectrum are composed of independent, additive linear, and nonlinear terms. While time averaged shear wave velocity in the top 30 m of a site (VS30) is a key input parameter, it is shown that including site period (Tnat) effects into the linear site amplification functions significantly improves these functions. Nonlinear amplification can be modelled as a function of VS30 and either rock outcrop peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration (SA) at rock outcrop as the driver of nonlinearity. The depth to hard rock plays a similar role to Tnat. A subset of models is developed from the CENA dataset for sites with strong, shallow VS impedance ratios resulting from hard rock present less than 30 m from the ground surface. A smaller but similar study of 30 thousand site amplification simulations representative of WUS site conditions is used to develop linear and nonlinear site amplification models which show similar amplification behaviors as the models developed for CENA. These large-scale simulations are enabled through the development of highly optimized, efficient nonlinear site response software, multi-core batch analyses, and efficient data structures to analyze the nearly two terabytes of simulation data.",
author = "Hashash, {Youssef M A} and Joseph Harmon and Okan Ilhan and Stewart, {Jonathan P.} and Rathje, {Ellen M.} and Campbell, {Kenneth W.} and Silva, {Walter J.} and Goulet, {Christine A.}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1061/9780784481462.051",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "2018-June",
pages = "523--537",
journal = "Geotechnical Special Publication",
issn = "0895-0563",
publisher = "American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)",
number = "GSP 291",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Modelling of Site Amplification via Large Scale Nonlinear Simulations with Applications to North America

AU - Hashash, Youssef M A

AU - Harmon, Joseph

AU - Ilhan, Okan

AU - Stewart, Jonathan P.

AU - Rathje, Ellen M.

AU - Campbell, Kenneth W.

AU - Silva, Walter J.

AU - Goulet, Christine A.

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - This paper presents large scale simulation-based modelling of site amplification in two regions, Central and Eastern North America (CENA) and the Western Unites States (WUS). For CENA, a parametric study is developed with 1.2 million 1-D site response analyses (0.58 million of each linear elastic and nonlinear analyses) to represent the variability and uncertainty of site geologies, material properties, and ground motions in CENA and their impacts on site amplification. These simulations are used to develop a suite of linear (L) and nonlinear (NL) site amplification functions for the response spectrum (RS) and smoothed Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS). The functions for each spectrum are composed of independent, additive linear, and nonlinear terms. While time averaged shear wave velocity in the top 30 m of a site (VS30) is a key input parameter, it is shown that including site period (Tnat) effects into the linear site amplification functions significantly improves these functions. Nonlinear amplification can be modelled as a function of VS30 and either rock outcrop peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration (SA) at rock outcrop as the driver of nonlinearity. The depth to hard rock plays a similar role to Tnat. A subset of models is developed from the CENA dataset for sites with strong, shallow VS impedance ratios resulting from hard rock present less than 30 m from the ground surface. A smaller but similar study of 30 thousand site amplification simulations representative of WUS site conditions is used to develop linear and nonlinear site amplification models which show similar amplification behaviors as the models developed for CENA. These large-scale simulations are enabled through the development of highly optimized, efficient nonlinear site response software, multi-core batch analyses, and efficient data structures to analyze the nearly two terabytes of simulation data.

AB - This paper presents large scale simulation-based modelling of site amplification in two regions, Central and Eastern North America (CENA) and the Western Unites States (WUS). For CENA, a parametric study is developed with 1.2 million 1-D site response analyses (0.58 million of each linear elastic and nonlinear analyses) to represent the variability and uncertainty of site geologies, material properties, and ground motions in CENA and their impacts on site amplification. These simulations are used to develop a suite of linear (L) and nonlinear (NL) site amplification functions for the response spectrum (RS) and smoothed Fourier amplitude spectrum (FAS). The functions for each spectrum are composed of independent, additive linear, and nonlinear terms. While time averaged shear wave velocity in the top 30 m of a site (VS30) is a key input parameter, it is shown that including site period (Tnat) effects into the linear site amplification functions significantly improves these functions. Nonlinear amplification can be modelled as a function of VS30 and either rock outcrop peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration (SA) at rock outcrop as the driver of nonlinearity. The depth to hard rock plays a similar role to Tnat. A subset of models is developed from the CENA dataset for sites with strong, shallow VS impedance ratios resulting from hard rock present less than 30 m from the ground surface. A smaller but similar study of 30 thousand site amplification simulations representative of WUS site conditions is used to develop linear and nonlinear site amplification models which show similar amplification behaviors as the models developed for CENA. These large-scale simulations are enabled through the development of highly optimized, efficient nonlinear site response software, multi-core batch analyses, and efficient data structures to analyze the nearly two terabytes of simulation data.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85048882500&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85048882500&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1061/9780784481462.051

DO - 10.1061/9780784481462.051

M3 - Conference article

AN - SCOPUS:85048882500

VL - 2018-June

SP - 523

EP - 537

JO - Geotechnical Special Publication

JF - Geotechnical Special Publication

SN - 0895-0563

IS - GSP 291

ER -