Modeling uncertainty of specimens employing spines and force-limiting connections tested at E-defense shake table

Bryam Astudillo, David Rivera, Jessica Duke, Barbara Simpson, Larry A. Fahnestock, Richard Sause, James Ricles, Masahiro Kurata, Taichiro Okazaki, Yohsuke Kawamata, Zhuoqi Tao, Yi Qie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In light of the significant damage observed after earthquakes in Japan and New Zealand, enhanced performing seismic force-resisting systems and energy dissipation devices are increasingly being utilized in buildings. Numerical models are needed to estimate the seismic response of these systems for seismic design or assessment. While there have been studies on modeling uncertainty, selecting the model features most important to response can remain ambiguous, especially if the structure employs less well-established lateral force-resisting systems and components. Herein, a global sensitivity analysis was used to address modeling uncertainty in specimens with elastic spines and force-limiting connections (FLCs) physically tested at full-scale at the E-Defense shake table in Japan. Modeling uncertainty was addressed for both model class and model parameter uncertainty by varying primary models to develop several secondary models according to pre-established uncertainty groups. Numerical estimates of peak story drift ratio and floor acceleration were compared to the results from the experimental testing program using confidence intervals and root-mean-square error. Metrics such as the coefficient of variation, variance, linear Pearson correlation coefficient, and Sobol index were used to gain intuition about each model feature's contribution to the dispersion in estimates of the engineering demands. Peak floor acceleration was found to be more sensitive to modeling uncertainty compared to story drift ratio. Assumptions for the spine-to-frame connection significantly impacted estimates of peak floor accelerations, which could influence future design methods for spines and FLC in enhanced lateral-force resisting systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4638-4659
Number of pages22
JournalEarthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics
Issue number14
StatePublished - Nov 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • floor accelerations
  • force-limiting connections
  • global sensitivity analysis
  • higher modes
  • modeling uncertainty propagation
  • steel spines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)


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