Understanding constraints to participation in recreation and leisure is a common research topic. This article used social identity theory to increase our understanding of leisure constraints, negotiation, motivation, and planned participation. Using a large online sample of ultra-endurance gravel racers (n = 916), this study used structural equation modeling to explore the relationship between social identity and constraints, negotiation, motivation, and planned participation. Similar to previous research, the modeling of constraints provided marginal model fit, and the implications of this continued measurement difficulty are discussed. Social identity had a significant direct relationship with motivations, constraints, and negotiation strategies. Social identity also demonstrated a significant indirect effect on planned participation. These findings suggest that social identity plays a significant role in the constraint negotiation process, as well as leisure participation more broadly.
- social identity
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
- Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
- Sociology and Political Science