The emergence of biofuels as an agricultural commodity has integrated the agricultural, energy and livestock sectors and expanded the scope of models being used to analyze the effects of energy policies. It has increased the importance of incorporating spatial heterogeneity in land availability and productivity and information about the biophysical and economic determinants of land use change at multiple spatial scales. Since biofuels affect food and fuel prices, they have expanded the boundaries of economic models to consider not only their direct but also their indirect effects on land use and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper describes the demand-side and supply-side determinants of these direct and indirect changes in land use and greenhouse gas emissions with biofuels. We discuss the major modeling approaches used to analyze these effects, their strengths, limitations and key findings and directions for future research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1250016
JournalClimate Change Economics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 1 2012


  • Partial equilibrium
  • biofuel policies
  • direct and indirect effects
  • general equilibrium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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