In this paper, we apply statistical methods for functional data to explore the heterogeneity in the registered number of deaths of COVID-19, over time. The cumulative daily number of deaths in regions across Brazil is treated as continuous curves (functional data). The first stage of the analysis applies clustering methods for functional data to identify and describe potential heterogeneity in the curves and their functional derivatives. The estimated clusters are labeled with different “levels of alert” to identify cities in a possible critical situation. In the second stage of the analysis, we apply a functional quantile regression model for the death curves to explore the associations with functional rates of vaccination and stringency and also with several scalar geographical, socioeconomic and demographic covariates. The proposed model gave a better curve fit at different levels of the cumulative number of deaths when compared to a functional regression model based on ordinary least squares. Our results add to the understanding of the development of COVID-19 death counts.
- B-splines basis functions
- functional data analysis
- functional quantile regression for functional partially linear model
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Statistics and Probability