The inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and the formation of bromate were assessed simultaneously by performing experiments with a full-scale ozone bubble-diffuser contactor used for drinking water disinfection. Fluorescence-dyed polystyrene microspheres were used as surrogates for C. parvum oocysts. Semi-batch ozonation experiments were performed to determine the fluorescence-intensity decay of individual microspheres, which was measured by flow cytometry. The results obtained with the microspheres were correlated to the inactivation kinetics of C. parvum oocysts by choosing an appropriate threshold fluorescence intensity below which microspheres were considered to be equivalent to nonviable oocysts. A mathematical model was then used to predict the inactivation efficiency and bromate formation. The contactor hydrodynamics were characterized by running tracer tests, and the kinetic parameters for ozone decomposition and bromate formation were obtained by performing batch experiments. Model predictions were in good agreement with full-scale experimental results. Additional model simulations revealed that ozone contactors should be designed with the lowest possible backmixing so that the target inactivation efficiency can be achieved with the lowest possible formation of bromate.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry