A study was conducted to demonstrate modeling and simulation of ion channels. Early phenomenological models of excitable membranes were discussed and the latest developments in this area were reviewed. Early work on phenomenological modeling of ion channels occurred before the existence of ion channels had been established. Researchers were making efforts to understand the mechanism of signal propagation in nerve cells. Early models described the axon as a 'cable', with a conductive core surrounded by a less conductive, capacitive sheath, which was later identified as a membrane in the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model. The HH model played a key role in understanding of nerve cells, and excitable membranes, while continuing to influence research work in the field. A team of researchers also demonstrated that millisecond all-atom molecular dynamic (MD) simulation of ion channels was performed by using Anton, a special-purpose hardware designed only for such MD simulations.
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