Model-independent X-ray imaging of adsorbed cations at the crystal-water interface

Z. Zhang, P. Fenter, L. Cheng, N. C. Sturchio, M. J. Bedzyk, M. L. Machesky, D. J. Wesolowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We describe an approach to directly image three-dimensional elemental distributions at the crystal-liquid interface with ∼ 1 Å spatial resolution. This method, based on the Fourier synthesis of X-ray standing wave data, is demonstrated by imaging the distribution of Sr2+, Zn 2+ and Y3+ adsorbed to the rutile (110)-water interface with no a priori assumptions. The approach resolves distinct sites and is robust for systems with single or multiple simultaneous adsorption sites. The observed ion distributions reveal unexpected differences in the adsorption sites of these cations that are needed to interpret electrical double-layer phenomena using surface complexation models. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)L95-L100
JournalSurface Science
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - Apr 10 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Adatoms
  • Solid-liquid interfaces
  • Surface electronic phenomena (work function, surface potential, surface states, etc.)
  • Titanium oxide
  • X-ray standing waves

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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