Mode control in photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and coherent arrays

Dominic F. Siriani, Meng Peun Tan, Ansas M. Kasten, Ann C. Lehman Harren, Paul O. Leisher, Joshua D. Sulkin, James J. Raftery, Aaron J. Danner, Antonios V. Giannopoulos, Kent D. Choquette

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We demonstrate transverse mode control in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and 2-D VCSEL arrays. By etching a periodic arrangement of circular holes into the top distributed Bragg reflector mirror, we are able to control the lasing modes through index and loss confinement. Theoretical modeling of these confinement effects are shown to be consistent with experimental measurements. Photonic crystal etched patterns and ion-implanted photonic lattices have been employed to fabricate coherently-coupled 2-D arrays. Control of the array supermodes from the out-of-phase and in-phase conditions is discussed. Designs of photonic crystal coherent VCSEL arrays for high-power emission and beam steering applications are described.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4781555
Pages (from-to)909-917
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2009


  • Distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers
  • Laser modes
  • Semiconductor laser arrays
  • Semiconductor lasers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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