Mode behavior of vcsels with impurity-induced disordering

Thomas O'Brien, Benjamin Kesler, Saoud Al Mulla, John M. Dallesasse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This letter explores the modal behavior of oxideconfined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with varying emission apertures defined by impurity-induced disordering (IID) via closed ampoule zinc diffusion. A 1-D plane wave propagation method is used to calculate the mirror loss as a function of IID strength and depth. The devices are fabricated with masked areas ranging from approximately 70%-110% of the oxide aperture defining an unmodified emission aperture designed to overlap mainly with the fundamental mode. An analysis of the transverse mode lasing characteristics and mode-dependent thermal characteristics demonstrates a decrease in thermal performance associated with the increasing overlap between the IID ring and supported optical modes of the VCSEL cavity. A single-mode output power of 1.6 mW with over 30 dBm side-mode suppression ration is achieved from a 3 μm device with an IID-defined output aperture of approximately 1.3 μm. The optimal IID emission aperture to oxide aperture ratio for maximizing the single-fundamental-mode output power is experimentally measured.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7920383
Pages (from-to)1179-1182
Number of pages4
JournalIEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 15 2017


  • Impurity induced disordering
  • Mode control
  • Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers
  • Zinc diffusion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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