The subfamily Typhlocybinae is a ubiquitous, highly diverse group of mostly tiny, delicate leafhoppers. The tribal classification has long been controversial and phylogenetic methods have only recently begun to test the phylogenetic status and relationships of tribes. To shed light on the evolution of Typhlocybinae, we performed phylogenetic analyses based on 28 newly sequenced and 19 previously sequenced mitochondrial genomes representing all currently recognized tribes. The results support the monophyly of the subfamily and its sister-group relationship to Mileewinae. The tribe Zyginellini is polyphyletic with some included genera derived independently within Typhlocybini. Ancestral character state reconstruction suggests that some morphological characters traditionally considered important for diagnosing tribes (presence/absence of ocelli, development of hind wing submarginal vein) are homoplastic. Divergence time estimates indicate that the subfamily arose during the Middle Cretaceous and that the extant tribes arose during the Late Cretaceous. Phylogenetic results support establishment of a new genus, Subtilissimia Yan & Yang gen. nov., with two new species, Subtilissimia fulva Yan & Yang sp. nov. and Subtilissimia pellicula Yan & Yang sp. nov.; but indicate that two previously recognized species of Farynala distinguished only by the direction of curvature of the processes of the aedeagus are synonyms, that is, Farynala dextra Yan & Yang, 2017 equals Farynala sinistra Yan & Yang, 2017 syn. nov. A key to tribes of Typhlocybinae is provided.
- ancestral character state reconstruction
- phylogenetic analysis
- mitochondrial genes
- high-throughput sequencing