The widespread leafhopper genus Scaphoideus Uhler is the most diverse genus in Scaphoideini and includes some species that are serious pests and vectors of plant pathogens. Here the first Scaphoideus mitogenome sequences are provided for three species, S. maai, S. nigrivalveus and S. varius, representing three main species groups in the Oriental region based on color pattern. The lengths of these three mitogenomes were 15,188, 15,235 and 15,207 bp, respectively. Gene order of three mitogenomes is highly conserved and identical to that of the putative ancestral insect. All three mitogenomes exhibited similar AT nucleotide bias, AT-, GC-skews and codon usage. One large 101 bp intergenic spacer between trnY and cox1 was in S. varius. All 22 tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures, except for trnS1 (AGN) which appears to lack the dihydrouridine arm. Genes atp8, nad6 and nad2 were highly variable while cox1 showed the lowest nucleotide diversity. Phylogenetic analyses of three concatenated nucleotide datasets using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, comprising all 13 mitogenomes currently available for Membracoidea plus mitogenomes for eight outgroup species representing other cicadomorphan superfamilies, yielded the same topology in which Scaphoideus species formed a monophyletic group within a larger clade comprising three other included Deltocephalinae.
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