Defects in craniofacial bones occur congenitally, after high-energy impacts, and during the course of treatment for stroke and cancer. These injuries are difficult to heal due to the overwhelming size of the injury area and the inflammatory environment surrounding the injury. Significant inflammatory response after injury may greatly inhibit regenerative healing. We have developed mineralized collagen scaffolds that can induce osteogenic differentiation and matrix biosynthesis in the absence of osteogenic media or supplemental proteins. The amniotic membrane is derived from placentas and has been recently investigated as an extracellular matrix to prevent chronic inflammation. Herein, we hypothesized that a mineralized collagen-amnion composite scaffold could increase osteogenic activity in the presence of inflammatory cytokines. We report mechanical properties of a mineralized collagen-amnion scaffold and investigated osteogenic differentiation and mineral deposition of porcine adipose-derived stem cells within these scaffolds as a function of inflammatory challenge. Incorporation of amniotic membrane matrix promotes osteogenesis similarly to un-modified mineralized collagen scaffolds, and increases in mineralized collagen-amnion scaffolds under inflammatory challenge. Together, these findings suggest that a mineralized collagen-amnion scaffold may provide a beneficial environment to aid craniomaxillofacial bone repair, especially in the course of defects presenting significant inflammatory complications.
- amniotic membrane
- mineralized collagen scaffolds
- stem cell
ASJC Scopus subject areas