Mid-Holocene and glacial-maximum vegetation geography of the northern continents and Africa

I. Colin Prentice, Dominique Jolly, N. B. Afanas'eva, T. A. Ager, K. Anderson, P. M. Anderson, V. Andrieu, A. A. Andreev, A. Ballouche, P. J. Bartlein, J. L. de Beaulieu, M. Bengo, N. A. Berezina, L. G. Bezusko, T. V. Bezusko, N. H. Bigelow, T. A. Blyakharchuk, N. S. Bolikhovskaya, R. Bonnefille, S. BottemaP. Brénac, L. B. Brubaker, G. Buchet, D. Burney, G. V. Bykova, R. Cheddadi, X. Chen, M. M. Chernavskaya, G. M. Chernova, L. C. Cwynar, N. I. Dorofeyuk, V. G. Dirksen, T. Edorh, M. E. Edwards, W. R. Eisner, H. Elenga, G. A. Elina, S. Elmoutaki, L. V. Filimonova, F. Z. Glebov, J. Guiot, V. S. Gunova, A. C. Hamilton, H. Han, S. P. Harrison, F. S. Hu, C. Huang, B. Huntley, D. Jolly, H. Jonson, M. Ke, V. I. Khomutova, Z. Kong, E. V. Kvavadze, F. Laarif, H. E. Lamb, A. M. Lézine, S. Li, W. Li, P. Liew, G. Liu, J. Liu, Q. Liu, K. B. Liu, A. V. Lozhkin, J. Maley, R. Marchant, M. Mbenza, G. M. MacDonald, N. Miyoshi, C. J. Mock, Y. Morita, P. Newby, J. Ni, I. R. Osipova, N. K. Panova, R. Perez-Obiol, O. Peyron, I. C. Prentice, W. Qiu, M. Reille, G. Ren, I. Reynaud-Farrera, P. J.H. Richard, G. Riollet, J. C. Ritchie, E. Roche, L. Saarse, L. Scott, D. V. Sevastyanov, A. V. Sher, C. Song, R. W. Spear, I. Ssemmanda, H. Straka, S. Sugita, X. Sun, H. Takahara, L. Tang, P. E. Tarasov, D. Taylor, R. S. Thompson, T. Uchiyama, E. Van Campo, S. Vilimumbalo, A. Vincens, V. S. Volkova, M. Waller, T. Webb, J. W. Williams, Y. Xia, Q. Xu, S. Yan, X. Yang, G. Yu, V. P. Zernitskaya, J. Zhao, Z. Zheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BIOME 6000 is an international project to map vegetation globally at mid-Holocene (6000 14C yr BP) and last glacial maximum (LGM, 18,000 14C yr BP), with a view to evaluating coupled climate-biosphere model results. Primary palaeoecological data are assigned to biomes using an explicit algorithm based on plant functional types. This paper introduces the second Special Feature on BIOME 6000. Site-based global biome maps are shown with data from North America, Eurasia (except South and Southeast Asia) and Africa at both time periods. A map based on surface samples shows the method's skill in reconstructing present-day biomes. Cold and dry conditions at LGM favoured extensive tundra and steppe. These biomes intergraded in northern Eurasia. Northern hemisphere forest biomes were displaced southward. Boreal evergreen forests (taiga) and temperate deciduous forests were fragmented, while European and East Asian steppes were greatly extended. Tropical moist forests (i.e. tropical rain forest and tropical seasonal forest) in Africa were reduced. In south-western North America, desert and steppe were replaced by open conifer woodland, opposite to the general arid trend but consistent with modelled southward displacement of the jet stream. The Arctic forest limit was shifted slighly north at 6000 14C yr BP in some sectors, but not in all. Northern temperate forest zones were generally shifted greater distances north. Warmer winters as well as summers in several regions are required to explain these shifts. Temperate deciduous forests in Europe were greatly extended, into the Mediterranean region as well as to the north. Steppe encroached on forest biomes in interior North America, but not in central Asia. Enhanced monsoons extended forest biomes in China inland and Sahelian vegetation into the Sahara while the African tropical rain forest was also reduced, consistent with a modelled northward shift of the ITCZ and a more seasonal climate in the equatorial zone. Palaeobiome maps show the outcome of separate, independent migrations of plant taxa in response to climate change. The average composition of biomes at LGM was often markedly different from today. Refugia for the temperate deciduous and tropical rain forest biomes may have existed offshore at LGM, but their characteristic taxa also persisted as components of other biomes. Examples include temperate deciduous trees that survived in cool mixed forest in eastern Europe, and tropical evergreen trees that survived in tropical seasonal forest in Africa. The sequence of biome shifts during a glacial-interglacial cycle may help account for some disjunct distributions of plant taxa. For example, the now-arid Saharan mountains may have linked Mediterranean and African tropical montane floras during enhanced monsoon regimes. Major changes in physical land-surface conditions, shown by the palaeobiome data, have implications for the global climate. The data can be used directly to evaluate the output of coupled atmosphere-biosphere models. The data could also be objectively generalized to yield realistic gridded land-surface maps, for use in sensitivity experiments with atmospheric models. Recent analyses of vegetation-climate feedbacks have focused on the hypothesized positive feedback effects of climate-induced vegetation changes in the Sahara/Sahel region and the Arctic during the mid-Holocene. However, a far wider spectrum of interactions potentially exists and could be investigated, using these data, both for 6000 14C yr BP and for the LGM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)507-519
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Biogeography
Volume27
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2000

Fingerprint

geography
biome
Holocene
vegetation
ecosystems
steppes
steppe
climate
tropical rain forests
temperate forests
temperate forest
Eurasia
deciduous forests
deciduous forest
biosphere
boreal forest
Arctic region
land surface
monsoon
Africa

Keywords

  • Biogeography
  • Biomes
  • Climate change
  • Land-surface characteristics
  • Last glacial maximum
  • Mid-Holocene
  • Plant functional data
  • Plant functional types
  • Pollen data
  • Vegetation changes
  • Vegetation distribution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology

Cite this

Prentice, I. C., Jolly, D., Afanas'eva, N. B., Ager, T. A., Anderson, K., Anderson, P. M., ... Zheng, Z. (2000). Mid-Holocene and glacial-maximum vegetation geography of the northern continents and Africa. Journal of Biogeography, 27(3), 507-519. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2699.2000.00425.x

Mid-Holocene and glacial-maximum vegetation geography of the northern continents and Africa. / Prentice, I. Colin; Jolly, Dominique; Afanas'eva, N. B.; Ager, T. A.; Anderson, K.; Anderson, P. M.; Andrieu, V.; Andreev, A. A.; Ballouche, A.; Bartlein, P. J.; de Beaulieu, J. L.; Bengo, M.; Berezina, N. A.; Bezusko, L. G.; Bezusko, T. V.; Bigelow, N. H.; Blyakharchuk, T. A.; Bolikhovskaya, N. S.; Bonnefille, R.; Bottema, S.; Brénac, P.; Brubaker, L. B.; Buchet, G.; Burney, D.; Bykova, G. V.; Cheddadi, R.; Chen, X.; Chernavskaya, M. M.; Chernova, G. M.; Cwynar, L. C.; Dorofeyuk, N. I.; Dirksen, V. G.; Edorh, T.; Edwards, M. E.; Eisner, W. R.; Elenga, H.; Elina, G. A.; Elmoutaki, S.; Filimonova, L. V.; Glebov, F. Z.; Guiot, J.; Gunova, V. S.; Hamilton, A. C.; Han, H.; Harrison, S. P.; Hu, F. S.; Huang, C.; Huntley, B.; Jolly, D.; Jonson, H.; Ke, M.; Khomutova, V. I.; Kong, Z.; Kvavadze, E. V.; Laarif, F.; Lamb, H. E.; Lézine, A. M.; Li, S.; Li, W.; Liew, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, J.; Liu, Q.; Liu, K. B.; Lozhkin, A. V.; Maley, J.; Marchant, R.; Mbenza, M.; MacDonald, G. M.; Miyoshi, N.; Mock, C. J.; Morita, Y.; Newby, P.; Ni, J.; Osipova, I. R.; Panova, N. K.; Perez-Obiol, R.; Peyron, O.; Prentice, I. C.; Qiu, W.; Reille, M.; Ren, G.; Reynaud-Farrera, I.; Richard, P. J.H.; Riollet, G.; Ritchie, J. C.; Roche, E.; Saarse, L.; Scott, L.; Sevastyanov, D. V.; Sher, A. V.; Song, C.; Spear, R. W.; Ssemmanda, I.; Straka, H.; Sugita, S.; Sun, X.; Takahara, H.; Tang, L.; Tarasov, P. E.; Taylor, D.; Thompson, R. S.; Uchiyama, T.; Van Campo, E.; Vilimumbalo, S.; Vincens, A.; Volkova, V. S.; Waller, M.; Webb, T.; Williams, J. W.; Xia, Y.; Xu, Q.; Yan, S.; Yang, X.; Yu, G.; Zernitskaya, V. P.; Zhao, J.; Zheng, Z.

In: Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 27, No. 3, 01.12.2000, p. 507-519.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Prentice, IC, Jolly, D, Afanas'eva, NB, Ager, TA, Anderson, K, Anderson, PM, Andrieu, V, Andreev, AA, Ballouche, A, Bartlein, PJ, de Beaulieu, JL, Bengo, M, Berezina, NA, Bezusko, LG, Bezusko, TV, Bigelow, NH, Blyakharchuk, TA, Bolikhovskaya, NS, Bonnefille, R, Bottema, S, Brénac, P, Brubaker, LB, Buchet, G, Burney, D, Bykova, GV, Cheddadi, R, Chen, X, Chernavskaya, MM, Chernova, GM, Cwynar, LC, Dorofeyuk, NI, Dirksen, VG, Edorh, T, Edwards, ME, Eisner, WR, Elenga, H, Elina, GA, Elmoutaki, S, Filimonova, LV, Glebov, FZ, Guiot, J, Gunova, VS, Hamilton, AC, Han, H, Harrison, SP, Hu, FS, Huang, C, Huntley, B, Jolly, D, Jonson, H, Ke, M, Khomutova, VI, Kong, Z, Kvavadze, EV, Laarif, F, Lamb, HE, Lézine, AM, Li, S, Li, W, Liew, P, Liu, G, Liu, J, Liu, Q, Liu, KB, Lozhkin, AV, Maley, J, Marchant, R, Mbenza, M, MacDonald, GM, Miyoshi, N, Mock, CJ, Morita, Y, Newby, P, Ni, J, Osipova, IR, Panova, NK, Perez-Obiol, R, Peyron, O, Prentice, IC, Qiu, W, Reille, M, Ren, G, Reynaud-Farrera, I, Richard, PJH, Riollet, G, Ritchie, JC, Roche, E, Saarse, L, Scott, L, Sevastyanov, DV, Sher, AV, Song, C, Spear, RW, Ssemmanda, I, Straka, H, Sugita, S, Sun, X, Takahara, H, Tang, L, Tarasov, PE, Taylor, D, Thompson, RS, Uchiyama, T, Van Campo, E, Vilimumbalo, S, Vincens, A, Volkova, VS, Waller, M, Webb, T, Williams, JW, Xia, Y, Xu, Q, Yan, S, Yang, X, Yu, G, Zernitskaya, VP, Zhao, J & Zheng, Z 2000, 'Mid-Holocene and glacial-maximum vegetation geography of the northern continents and Africa', Journal of Biogeography, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 507-519. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2699.2000.00425.x
Prentice, I. Colin ; Jolly, Dominique ; Afanas'eva, N. B. ; Ager, T. A. ; Anderson, K. ; Anderson, P. M. ; Andrieu, V. ; Andreev, A. A. ; Ballouche, A. ; Bartlein, P. J. ; de Beaulieu, J. L. ; Bengo, M. ; Berezina, N. A. ; Bezusko, L. G. ; Bezusko, T. V. ; Bigelow, N. H. ; Blyakharchuk, T. A. ; Bolikhovskaya, N. S. ; Bonnefille, R. ; Bottema, S. ; Brénac, P. ; Brubaker, L. B. ; Buchet, G. ; Burney, D. ; Bykova, G. V. ; Cheddadi, R. ; Chen, X. ; Chernavskaya, M. M. ; Chernova, G. M. ; Cwynar, L. C. ; Dorofeyuk, N. I. ; Dirksen, V. G. ; Edorh, T. ; Edwards, M. E. ; Eisner, W. R. ; Elenga, H. ; Elina, G. A. ; Elmoutaki, S. ; Filimonova, L. V. ; Glebov, F. Z. ; Guiot, J. ; Gunova, V. S. ; Hamilton, A. C. ; Han, H. ; Harrison, S. P. ; Hu, F. S. ; Huang, C. ; Huntley, B. ; Jolly, D. ; Jonson, H. ; Ke, M. ; Khomutova, V. I. ; Kong, Z. ; Kvavadze, E. V. ; Laarif, F. ; Lamb, H. E. ; Lézine, A. M. ; Li, S. ; Li, W. ; Liew, P. ; Liu, G. ; Liu, J. ; Liu, Q. ; Liu, K. B. ; Lozhkin, A. V. ; Maley, J. ; Marchant, R. ; Mbenza, M. ; MacDonald, G. M. ; Miyoshi, N. ; Mock, C. J. ; Morita, Y. ; Newby, P. ; Ni, J. ; Osipova, I. R. ; Panova, N. K. ; Perez-Obiol, R. ; Peyron, O. ; Prentice, I. C. ; Qiu, W. ; Reille, M. ; Ren, G. ; Reynaud-Farrera, I. ; Richard, P. J.H. ; Riollet, G. ; Ritchie, J. C. ; Roche, E. ; Saarse, L. ; Scott, L. ; Sevastyanov, D. V. ; Sher, A. V. ; Song, C. ; Spear, R. W. ; Ssemmanda, I. ; Straka, H. ; Sugita, S. ; Sun, X. ; Takahara, H. ; Tang, L. ; Tarasov, P. E. ; Taylor, D. ; Thompson, R. S. ; Uchiyama, T. ; Van Campo, E. ; Vilimumbalo, S. ; Vincens, A. ; Volkova, V. S. ; Waller, M. ; Webb, T. ; Williams, J. W. ; Xia, Y. ; Xu, Q. ; Yan, S. ; Yang, X. ; Yu, G. ; Zernitskaya, V. P. ; Zhao, J. ; Zheng, Z. / Mid-Holocene and glacial-maximum vegetation geography of the northern continents and Africa. In: Journal of Biogeography. 2000 ; Vol. 27, No. 3. pp. 507-519.
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title = "Mid-Holocene and glacial-maximum vegetation geography of the northern continents and Africa",
abstract = "BIOME 6000 is an international project to map vegetation globally at mid-Holocene (6000 14C yr BP) and last glacial maximum (LGM, 18,000 14C yr BP), with a view to evaluating coupled climate-biosphere model results. Primary palaeoecological data are assigned to biomes using an explicit algorithm based on plant functional types. This paper introduces the second Special Feature on BIOME 6000. Site-based global biome maps are shown with data from North America, Eurasia (except South and Southeast Asia) and Africa at both time periods. A map based on surface samples shows the method's skill in reconstructing present-day biomes. Cold and dry conditions at LGM favoured extensive tundra and steppe. These biomes intergraded in northern Eurasia. Northern hemisphere forest biomes were displaced southward. Boreal evergreen forests (taiga) and temperate deciduous forests were fragmented, while European and East Asian steppes were greatly extended. Tropical moist forests (i.e. tropical rain forest and tropical seasonal forest) in Africa were reduced. In south-western North America, desert and steppe were replaced by open conifer woodland, opposite to the general arid trend but consistent with modelled southward displacement of the jet stream. The Arctic forest limit was shifted slighly north at 6000 14C yr BP in some sectors, but not in all. Northern temperate forest zones were generally shifted greater distances north. Warmer winters as well as summers in several regions are required to explain these shifts. Temperate deciduous forests in Europe were greatly extended, into the Mediterranean region as well as to the north. Steppe encroached on forest biomes in interior North America, but not in central Asia. Enhanced monsoons extended forest biomes in China inland and Sahelian vegetation into the Sahara while the African tropical rain forest was also reduced, consistent with a modelled northward shift of the ITCZ and a more seasonal climate in the equatorial zone. Palaeobiome maps show the outcome of separate, independent migrations of plant taxa in response to climate change. The average composition of biomes at LGM was often markedly different from today. Refugia for the temperate deciduous and tropical rain forest biomes may have existed offshore at LGM, but their characteristic taxa also persisted as components of other biomes. Examples include temperate deciduous trees that survived in cool mixed forest in eastern Europe, and tropical evergreen trees that survived in tropical seasonal forest in Africa. The sequence of biome shifts during a glacial-interglacial cycle may help account for some disjunct distributions of plant taxa. For example, the now-arid Saharan mountains may have linked Mediterranean and African tropical montane floras during enhanced monsoon regimes. Major changes in physical land-surface conditions, shown by the palaeobiome data, have implications for the global climate. The data can be used directly to evaluate the output of coupled atmosphere-biosphere models. The data could also be objectively generalized to yield realistic gridded land-surface maps, for use in sensitivity experiments with atmospheric models. Recent analyses of vegetation-climate feedbacks have focused on the hypothesized positive feedback effects of climate-induced vegetation changes in the Sahara/Sahel region and the Arctic during the mid-Holocene. However, a far wider spectrum of interactions potentially exists and could be investigated, using these data, both for 6000 14C yr BP and for the LGM.",
keywords = "Biogeography, Biomes, Climate change, Land-surface characteristics, Last glacial maximum, Mid-Holocene, Plant functional data, Plant functional types, Pollen data, Vegetation changes, Vegetation distribution",
author = "Prentice, {I. Colin} and Dominique Jolly and Afanas'eva, {N. B.} and Ager, {T. A.} and K. Anderson and Anderson, {P. M.} and V. Andrieu and Andreev, {A. A.} and A. Ballouche and Bartlein, {P. J.} and {de Beaulieu}, {J. L.} and M. Bengo and Berezina, {N. A.} and Bezusko, {L. G.} and Bezusko, {T. V.} and Bigelow, {N. H.} and Blyakharchuk, {T. A.} and Bolikhovskaya, {N. S.} and R. Bonnefille and S. Bottema and P. Br{\'e}nac and Brubaker, {L. B.} and G. Buchet and D. Burney and Bykova, {G. V.} and R. Cheddadi and X. Chen and Chernavskaya, {M. M.} and Chernova, {G. M.} and Cwynar, {L. C.} and Dorofeyuk, {N. I.} and Dirksen, {V. G.} and T. Edorh and Edwards, {M. E.} and Eisner, {W. R.} and H. Elenga and Elina, {G. A.} and S. Elmoutaki and Filimonova, {L. V.} and Glebov, {F. Z.} and J. Guiot and Gunova, {V. S.} and Hamilton, {A. C.} and H. Han and Harrison, {S. P.} and Hu, {F. S.} and C. Huang and B. Huntley and D. Jolly and H. Jonson and M. Ke and Khomutova, {V. I.} and Z. Kong and Kvavadze, {E. V.} and F. Laarif and Lamb, {H. E.} and L{\'e}zine, {A. M.} and S. Li and W. Li and P. Liew and G. Liu and J. Liu and Q. Liu and Liu, {K. B.} and Lozhkin, {A. V.} and J. Maley and R. Marchant and M. Mbenza and MacDonald, {G. M.} and N. Miyoshi and Mock, {C. J.} and Y. Morita and P. Newby and J. Ni and Osipova, {I. R.} and Panova, {N. K.} and R. Perez-Obiol and O. Peyron and Prentice, {I. C.} and W. Qiu and M. Reille and G. Ren and I. Reynaud-Farrera and Richard, {P. J.H.} and G. Riollet and Ritchie, {J. C.} and E. Roche and L. Saarse and L. Scott and Sevastyanov, {D. V.} and Sher, {A. V.} and C. Song and Spear, {R. W.} and I. Ssemmanda and H. Straka and S. Sugita and X. Sun and H. Takahara and L. Tang and Tarasov, {P. E.} and D. Taylor and Thompson, {R. S.} and T. Uchiyama and {Van Campo}, E. and S. Vilimumbalo and A. Vincens and Volkova, {V. S.} and M. Waller and T. Webb and Williams, {J. W.} and Y. Xia and Q. Xu and S. Yan and X. Yang and G. Yu and Zernitskaya, {V. P.} and J. Zhao and Z. Zheng",
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month = "12",
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language = "English (US)",
volume = "27",
pages = "507--519",
journal = "Journal of Biogeography",
issn = "0305-0270",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
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}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mid-Holocene and glacial-maximum vegetation geography of the northern continents and Africa

AU - Prentice, I. Colin

AU - Jolly, Dominique

AU - Afanas'eva, N. B.

AU - Ager, T. A.

AU - Anderson, K.

AU - Anderson, P. M.

AU - Andrieu, V.

AU - Andreev, A. A.

AU - Ballouche, A.

AU - Bartlein, P. J.

AU - de Beaulieu, J. L.

AU - Bengo, M.

AU - Berezina, N. A.

AU - Bezusko, L. G.

AU - Bezusko, T. V.

AU - Bigelow, N. H.

AU - Blyakharchuk, T. A.

AU - Bolikhovskaya, N. S.

AU - Bonnefille, R.

AU - Bottema, S.

AU - Brénac, P.

AU - Brubaker, L. B.

AU - Buchet, G.

AU - Burney, D.

AU - Bykova, G. V.

AU - Cheddadi, R.

AU - Chen, X.

AU - Chernavskaya, M. M.

AU - Chernova, G. M.

AU - Cwynar, L. C.

AU - Dorofeyuk, N. I.

AU - Dirksen, V. G.

AU - Edorh, T.

AU - Edwards, M. E.

AU - Eisner, W. R.

AU - Elenga, H.

AU - Elina, G. A.

AU - Elmoutaki, S.

AU - Filimonova, L. V.

AU - Glebov, F. Z.

AU - Guiot, J.

AU - Gunova, V. S.

AU - Hamilton, A. C.

AU - Han, H.

AU - Harrison, S. P.

AU - Hu, F. S.

AU - Huang, C.

AU - Huntley, B.

AU - Jolly, D.

AU - Jonson, H.

AU - Ke, M.

AU - Khomutova, V. I.

AU - Kong, Z.

AU - Kvavadze, E. V.

AU - Laarif, F.

AU - Lamb, H. E.

AU - Lézine, A. M.

AU - Li, S.

AU - Li, W.

AU - Liew, P.

AU - Liu, G.

AU - Liu, J.

AU - Liu, Q.

AU - Liu, K. B.

AU - Lozhkin, A. V.

AU - Maley, J.

AU - Marchant, R.

AU - Mbenza, M.

AU - MacDonald, G. M.

AU - Miyoshi, N.

AU - Mock, C. J.

AU - Morita, Y.

AU - Newby, P.

AU - Ni, J.

AU - Osipova, I. R.

AU - Panova, N. K.

AU - Perez-Obiol, R.

AU - Peyron, O.

AU - Prentice, I. C.

AU - Qiu, W.

AU - Reille, M.

AU - Ren, G.

AU - Reynaud-Farrera, I.

AU - Richard, P. J.H.

AU - Riollet, G.

AU - Ritchie, J. C.

AU - Roche, E.

AU - Saarse, L.

AU - Scott, L.

AU - Sevastyanov, D. V.

AU - Sher, A. V.

AU - Song, C.

AU - Spear, R. W.

AU - Ssemmanda, I.

AU - Straka, H.

AU - Sugita, S.

AU - Sun, X.

AU - Takahara, H.

AU - Tang, L.

AU - Tarasov, P. E.

AU - Taylor, D.

AU - Thompson, R. S.

AU - Uchiyama, T.

AU - Van Campo, E.

AU - Vilimumbalo, S.

AU - Vincens, A.

AU - Volkova, V. S.

AU - Waller, M.

AU - Webb, T.

AU - Williams, J. W.

AU - Xia, Y.

AU - Xu, Q.

AU - Yan, S.

AU - Yang, X.

AU - Yu, G.

AU - Zernitskaya, V. P.

AU - Zhao, J.

AU - Zheng, Z.

PY - 2000/12/1

Y1 - 2000/12/1

N2 - BIOME 6000 is an international project to map vegetation globally at mid-Holocene (6000 14C yr BP) and last glacial maximum (LGM, 18,000 14C yr BP), with a view to evaluating coupled climate-biosphere model results. Primary palaeoecological data are assigned to biomes using an explicit algorithm based on plant functional types. This paper introduces the second Special Feature on BIOME 6000. Site-based global biome maps are shown with data from North America, Eurasia (except South and Southeast Asia) and Africa at both time periods. A map based on surface samples shows the method's skill in reconstructing present-day biomes. Cold and dry conditions at LGM favoured extensive tundra and steppe. These biomes intergraded in northern Eurasia. Northern hemisphere forest biomes were displaced southward. Boreal evergreen forests (taiga) and temperate deciduous forests were fragmented, while European and East Asian steppes were greatly extended. Tropical moist forests (i.e. tropical rain forest and tropical seasonal forest) in Africa were reduced. In south-western North America, desert and steppe were replaced by open conifer woodland, opposite to the general arid trend but consistent with modelled southward displacement of the jet stream. The Arctic forest limit was shifted slighly north at 6000 14C yr BP in some sectors, but not in all. Northern temperate forest zones were generally shifted greater distances north. Warmer winters as well as summers in several regions are required to explain these shifts. Temperate deciduous forests in Europe were greatly extended, into the Mediterranean region as well as to the north. Steppe encroached on forest biomes in interior North America, but not in central Asia. Enhanced monsoons extended forest biomes in China inland and Sahelian vegetation into the Sahara while the African tropical rain forest was also reduced, consistent with a modelled northward shift of the ITCZ and a more seasonal climate in the equatorial zone. Palaeobiome maps show the outcome of separate, independent migrations of plant taxa in response to climate change. The average composition of biomes at LGM was often markedly different from today. Refugia for the temperate deciduous and tropical rain forest biomes may have existed offshore at LGM, but their characteristic taxa also persisted as components of other biomes. Examples include temperate deciduous trees that survived in cool mixed forest in eastern Europe, and tropical evergreen trees that survived in tropical seasonal forest in Africa. The sequence of biome shifts during a glacial-interglacial cycle may help account for some disjunct distributions of plant taxa. For example, the now-arid Saharan mountains may have linked Mediterranean and African tropical montane floras during enhanced monsoon regimes. Major changes in physical land-surface conditions, shown by the palaeobiome data, have implications for the global climate. The data can be used directly to evaluate the output of coupled atmosphere-biosphere models. The data could also be objectively generalized to yield realistic gridded land-surface maps, for use in sensitivity experiments with atmospheric models. Recent analyses of vegetation-climate feedbacks have focused on the hypothesized positive feedback effects of climate-induced vegetation changes in the Sahara/Sahel region and the Arctic during the mid-Holocene. However, a far wider spectrum of interactions potentially exists and could be investigated, using these data, both for 6000 14C yr BP and for the LGM.

AB - BIOME 6000 is an international project to map vegetation globally at mid-Holocene (6000 14C yr BP) and last glacial maximum (LGM, 18,000 14C yr BP), with a view to evaluating coupled climate-biosphere model results. Primary palaeoecological data are assigned to biomes using an explicit algorithm based on plant functional types. This paper introduces the second Special Feature on BIOME 6000. Site-based global biome maps are shown with data from North America, Eurasia (except South and Southeast Asia) and Africa at both time periods. A map based on surface samples shows the method's skill in reconstructing present-day biomes. Cold and dry conditions at LGM favoured extensive tundra and steppe. These biomes intergraded in northern Eurasia. Northern hemisphere forest biomes were displaced southward. Boreal evergreen forests (taiga) and temperate deciduous forests were fragmented, while European and East Asian steppes were greatly extended. Tropical moist forests (i.e. tropical rain forest and tropical seasonal forest) in Africa were reduced. In south-western North America, desert and steppe were replaced by open conifer woodland, opposite to the general arid trend but consistent with modelled southward displacement of the jet stream. The Arctic forest limit was shifted slighly north at 6000 14C yr BP in some sectors, but not in all. Northern temperate forest zones were generally shifted greater distances north. Warmer winters as well as summers in several regions are required to explain these shifts. Temperate deciduous forests in Europe were greatly extended, into the Mediterranean region as well as to the north. Steppe encroached on forest biomes in interior North America, but not in central Asia. Enhanced monsoons extended forest biomes in China inland and Sahelian vegetation into the Sahara while the African tropical rain forest was also reduced, consistent with a modelled northward shift of the ITCZ and a more seasonal climate in the equatorial zone. Palaeobiome maps show the outcome of separate, independent migrations of plant taxa in response to climate change. The average composition of biomes at LGM was often markedly different from today. Refugia for the temperate deciduous and tropical rain forest biomes may have existed offshore at LGM, but their characteristic taxa also persisted as components of other biomes. Examples include temperate deciduous trees that survived in cool mixed forest in eastern Europe, and tropical evergreen trees that survived in tropical seasonal forest in Africa. The sequence of biome shifts during a glacial-interglacial cycle may help account for some disjunct distributions of plant taxa. For example, the now-arid Saharan mountains may have linked Mediterranean and African tropical montane floras during enhanced monsoon regimes. Major changes in physical land-surface conditions, shown by the palaeobiome data, have implications for the global climate. The data can be used directly to evaluate the output of coupled atmosphere-biosphere models. The data could also be objectively generalized to yield realistic gridded land-surface maps, for use in sensitivity experiments with atmospheric models. Recent analyses of vegetation-climate feedbacks have focused on the hypothesized positive feedback effects of climate-induced vegetation changes in the Sahara/Sahel region and the Arctic during the mid-Holocene. However, a far wider spectrum of interactions potentially exists and could be investigated, using these data, both for 6000 14C yr BP and for the LGM.

KW - Biogeography

KW - Biomes

KW - Climate change

KW - Land-surface characteristics

KW - Last glacial maximum

KW - Mid-Holocene

KW - Plant functional data

KW - Plant functional types

KW - Pollen data

KW - Vegetation changes

KW - Vegetation distribution

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034496201&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034496201&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1046/j.1365-2699.2000.00425.x

DO - 10.1046/j.1365-2699.2000.00425.x

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0034496201

VL - 27

SP - 507

EP - 519

JO - Journal of Biogeography

JF - Journal of Biogeography

SN - 0305-0270

IS - 3

ER -