Microstructure of a model fresh cheese and bioaccessibility of vitamin D3 using in vitro digestion

Nuria Castaneda, Youngsoo Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this study, the effect of a composition (protein to fat (P/F) ratio) and a processing condition (homogenization pressure for emulsification of cheese milk) on the texture, microstructure, and bioaccessibility of vitamin D3 of a model acid coagulated fresh cheese was evaluated. It was hypothesized that increasing P/F ratios (0.9, 1.3, 1.7, and 2) and homogenization pressures (17, 50, 75, and 150 MPa) will decrease the particle size of the cheese milk emulsion. The decreased emulsion particle size will result in a more rigid and elastic cheese matrix with smaller pore sizes, with an increased interfacial surface area of fat particles, which will then improve the bioaccessibility of vitamin D3. The P/F ratio exhibited a positive impact on the texture in a large deformation analysis. On the other hand, the effect of the P/F ratio and homogenization pressure was not significant on rheological properties of the cheese using a small deformation by means of a frequency sweep test, nor the porosity determined by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). These results suggested that the modification of the microstructure of acid coagulated fresh cheeses required other variables than P/F ratio and homogenization pressure probably due to a compression step after curd formation. Interestingly, the bioaccessibility of vitamin D3 measured by in vitro digestion was reduced as P/F ratio and homogenization pressure increased, which may indicate a reinforced protein–protein interaction that affected protein hydrolysis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number16
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2019


  • Bioaccessibility
  • Microstructure
  • Model fresh cheese
  • Soft solids
  • Vitamin D

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Polymers and Plastics


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