Microscopic anatomy and ultrastructure of the Camelus dromedarius ureter

Doaa Zaghloul, Shireen Hafez, Thomas Caceci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The histology and ultrastructure of the ureter of Camelus dromedarius were investigated. The ureteric wall included a tunica mucosa of transitional epithelium (urothelium); an underlying loose connective tissue layer (propriasubmucosa); a tunica muscularis of smooth muscle forming inner longitudinal, middle circular, and outer longitudinal layers; and a tunica adventitia or a tunica serosa. The smooth muscle layer of the renal pelvis was scarce or lacking. The urothelium consisted of basal cuboidal to columnar cells, intermediate cells, and larger, pale superficial cells with small nuclei. The epithelium of the renal pelvis was only a few cells deep. The transitional epithelium appeared to be adapted for extensibility and water impermeability. The cytoplasm of the superficial and intermediate cells contained many membrane-bound vesicles. Junctional complexes were seen between the lateral membranes of the superficial cells providing a barrier to the passage of substances and urine into the ureteric wall. The junctional complexes and the membrane-bound vesicles may play an important role in membrane turnover and in regulating the expansion and contraction of the urothelium. In this study, we report the presence of submucosal glands in the renal pelvis of Camelus dromedarius. The serous nature of the submucosal glands, seen under the light microscope, was confirmed with the electron microscope. These glands had nearly pyramidalshaped cells lying on a basement membrane and a lumen. The cells of the epithelial lining were mainly dark with a central spherical nucleus. A connective tissue capsule could be seen around the gland.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)202-208
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Anatomy
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Camel
  • Transitional epithelium
  • Ureter gland
  • Ureter histology
  • Urinary system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy


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