Microarray analysis uncovers retinoid targets in human bronchial epithelial cells

Yan Ma, Petra H. Koza-Taylor, Debra A. DiMattia, Lynn Hames, Haoning Fu, Konstantin H. Dragnev, Tom Turi, Jean S. Beebe, Sarah J. Freemantle, Ethan Dmitrovsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Retinoids, the natural and synthetic derivatives of vitamin A, have a role in cancer treatment and prevention. There is a need to reveal mechanisms that account for retinoid response or resistance. This study identified candidate all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) target genes linked to growth suppression in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. Microarray analyses were performed using Affymetrix arrays. A total of 11 RA-induced species were validated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western or Northern analyses. Three of these species were novel candidate RA-target genes in human bronchial epithelial cells. These included: placental bone morphogenetic protein (PLAB), polyamine oxidase isoform 1 (PAOh1) and E74-like factor 3 (ELF3). Expression patterns were studied in RA-resistant BEAS-2B-R1 cells. In BEAS-2B-R1 cells, RA dysregulated the expression of the putative lymphocyte G0/G1 switch gene (G0S2), heine oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 2 (TNFAIP2), inhibitor of DNA binding 1(Id1), fos-like antigen 1 (FOSL1), transglutaminase 2 (TGM2), asparagine synthetase (ASNS), PLAB, PAOh1 and ELF3, while prominent induction of insulin-like growth-factor-binding protein 6 (IGFBP6) still occurred. In summary, this study identified 11 candidate RA-target genes in human bronchial epithelial cells including three novel species. Expression studies in BEAS-2B-R1 cells indicated that several were directly implicated in RA signaling, since their aberrant expression was linked to RA resistance of human bronchial epithelial cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4924-4932
Number of pages9
Issue number31
StatePublished - Jul 31 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Bronchial epithelial cells
  • Microarray analysis
  • Retinoic acid
  • Retinoic acid resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Cancer Research


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