The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a complex heterogeneous assembly composed of a variety of cell types and physical features. One such feature, hypoxia, is associated with metabolic reprogramming, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and therapeutic resistance. Many questions remain regarding the effects of hypoxia on these outcomes; however, only a few experimental methods enable both precise control over oxygen concentration and real-time imaging of cell behavior. Recent efforts with microfluidic platforms offer a promising solution to these limitations. In this review, we discuss conventional methods and tools used to control oxygen concentration for cell studies, and then highlight recent advances in microfluidic-based approaches for controlling oxygen in engineered platforms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)556-563
Number of pages8
JournalTrends in Biotechnology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2014


  • Hypoxia
  • Microfluidics
  • Tumor microenvironment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering


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