Posttranslational modifications of NF-κB, including acetylation and methylation, have emerged as an important regulatory mechanism for determining the duration and strength of NF-κB nuclear activity as well as its transcriptional output. Within the seven NF-κB family proteins, the RelA subunit of NF-κB is the most studied for its regulation by lysine acetylation and methylation. Acetylation or methylation at different lysine residues modulates distinct functions of NF-κB, including DNA-binding and transcription activity, protein stability, and its interaction with NF-κB modulators. Here, we describe the experimental methods to monitor the in vitro and in vivo acetylated or methylated forms of NF-κB. These methods include radiolabeling the acetyl or methyl groups and immunoblotting with pan- or site-specific acetyl- or methyl-lysine antibodies. Radiolabeling is useful in the initial validation of the modifications. Immunoblotting with antibodies provides a rapid and powerful approach to detect and analyze the functions of these modifications in vitro and in vivo.
- Posttranslational modification
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology