Aspects of the subject disclosure may include, for example, an apparatus including a material having one or more atomic layers with two or less degrees of freedom for motion of charges in the material, and a gate coupled to the material for controlling charge concentration of the material. The material can have constricted sides, a first through-hole, and a first port and a second port for conduction of charges in the material. The gate can have a second through-hole that is at least partially aligned with the first through-hole. A first voltage potential can be applied to the first port and the second port, along with a second voltage potential applied to the gate which adjusts the charge concentration of the material. A sensor can be used to measure a change in electrical properties of the material caused by a target material traversing the first through-hole of the material. Additional embodiments are disclosed.
Original languageEnglish (US)
U.S. patent number10677752
StatePublished - Jun 9 2020


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