Medicine birds and mill creek-Middle Mississippian interaction:The contents of feature 8 at the Phipps site (13CK21)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The Phipps site (13CK21) in northwest Iowa contains evidence of interaction between Middle Mississippian and Middle Missouri peoples. Excavations in 1994 uncovered eight features and recovered more than 21,000 sherds and nearly 10,000 faunal elements. The assemblage from one feature includes more than 260 broken and splintered raptor tarsometatarsi, approximately 100 raptor phalanges, and more than 80 raptor talons, plus shell beads, red ocher-stained manos and mussel shell, a bison scapula hoe, and a large quantity of red-slipped sherds. The raptor elements may be the discarded remains from the preparation of a shipment of trade goods destined for Middle Mississippian peoples of western Illinois.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)538-553
Number of pages16
JournalAmerican Antiquity
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1 1997
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • History
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Archaeology
  • Museology

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