Mechanobiology of the skeleton

Charles H. Turner, Stuart J. Warden, Teresita Bellido, Lilian I. Plotkin, Natarajan Kumar, Iwona Jasiuk, Jon Danzig, Alexander G. Robling

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Mechanical loading of the skeleton is essential for the development, growth, and maintenance of strong, weight-bearing bones. Bone strength is plastic and can be modulated in adults, as illustrated by the increased bone mass in the playing arms of athletes as compared with their nonplaying arms. Our studies have shown that mechanical loading improves bone strength by inducing bone formation in regions of high strain energy. Therefore, bone tissue has a mechanosensing apparatus that directs osteogenesis to where it is most needed to increase bone strength. The most likely sensors of mechanical loading are the osteocytes, which are visco-elastically coupled to the bone matrix so that their biological response increases with loading rate; thus, increasing loading frequency improves the responsiveness of bone to loading. The osteocyte-specific protein sclerostin, an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway, appears to be one of the mediators of the mechanical loading response. Mechanical loading suppresses osteocyte sclerostin secretion, which allows Wnt signaling-dependent bone formation to occur. Intracellular calcium signaling, adenosine triphosphate signaling, and signaling through second messengers, such as prostaglandins and nitric oxide, precede sclerostin secretion. Stretch-activated ion channels and focal adhesion proteins may play a role in triggering these pathways upstream of sclerostin. In particular, focal adhesion kinase and proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 appear to be sensors of mechanical loads in bone cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)pt3
JournalScience Signaling
Volume2
Issue number68
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 28 2009

Fingerprint

Biophysics
Skeleton
Bone
Bone and Bones
Osteocytes
Osteogenesis
Focal Adhesion Kinase 2
Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Bone Matrix
Wnt Signaling Pathway
Focal Adhesions
Calcium Signaling
Bearings (structural)
Weight-Bearing
Second Messenger Systems
Ion Channels
Growth and Development
Athletes
Plastics
Prostaglandins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Turner, C. H., Warden, S. J., Bellido, T., Plotkin, L. I., Kumar, N., Jasiuk, I., ... Robling, A. G. (2009). Mechanobiology of the skeleton. Science Signaling, 2(68), pt3. https://doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.268pt3

Mechanobiology of the skeleton. / Turner, Charles H.; Warden, Stuart J.; Bellido, Teresita; Plotkin, Lilian I.; Kumar, Natarajan; Jasiuk, Iwona; Danzig, Jon; Robling, Alexander G.

In: Science Signaling, Vol. 2, No. 68, 28.04.2009, p. pt3.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Turner, CH, Warden, SJ, Bellido, T, Plotkin, LI, Kumar, N, Jasiuk, I, Danzig, J & Robling, AG 2009, 'Mechanobiology of the skeleton', Science Signaling, vol. 2, no. 68, pp. pt3. https://doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.268pt3
Turner CH, Warden SJ, Bellido T, Plotkin LI, Kumar N, Jasiuk I et al. Mechanobiology of the skeleton. Science Signaling. 2009 Apr 28;2(68):pt3. https://doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.268pt3
Turner, Charles H. ; Warden, Stuart J. ; Bellido, Teresita ; Plotkin, Lilian I. ; Kumar, Natarajan ; Jasiuk, Iwona ; Danzig, Jon ; Robling, Alexander G. / Mechanobiology of the skeleton. In: Science Signaling. 2009 ; Vol. 2, No. 68. pp. pt3.
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