Mechanical testing of cervical, thoracolumbar, and lumbar spine implants

E. A. Friis, P. M. Arnold, V. K. Goel

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The spine is a complex structure made up of multiple bones, joints, and soft tissues. The arrangement of the human spine allows us to have freedom of motion while maintaining upright walking and balance. The multiple joints and soft tissues that allow for complex motion may experience degeneration or failure, resulting in pain and loss of proper function. Low back pain is a major public health problem worldwide and the spinal implant industry is growing rapidly. Most spinal procedures in adults are performed in the cervical and lumbar regions. While the load levels in these two regions are very different, the curvature and basic anatomy have similarities; thus, implants used in these regions are tested in similar ways. This chapter focuses on the types of implants currently used in the cervical and lumbar regions and test methods to evaluate them both through standards and cadaveric testing. The summary of the test methods in this chapter is intended to provide basic considerations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMechanical Testing of Orthopaedic Implants
ISBN (Electronic)9780081002865
ISBN (Print)9780081002841
StatePublished - May 23 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Cervical
  • Facet replacement
  • Fusion cage
  • Intervertebral disc replacement
  • Lumbar
  • Spinal implants
  • Spine
  • Spine test methods
  • Vertebrae

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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