Copper electrodeposition from three acidic solutions containing (i) no additive, (ii) 100 μM benzotriazole, and (iii) 100 μM thiourea was studied by in situ atomic force microscopy. The electrodeposited surfaces were analyzed on three levels: (i) qualitatively during in situ monitoring of morphology evolution, (ii) quantitatively by scaling analysis of electrodeposited surface roughness during the course of deposition, and (iii) by modeling the spectral power density of the surface shape evolution. Major differences in deposit morphology were found between the three electrolytic solutions. All three levels of analysis gave consistent interpretations of morphology evolution. Deposition from additive-free solutions leads to rough surface textures due to roughening originating from surface diffusion. Addition of benzotriazole acts to smooth the deposit by diminishing surface diffusion. Deposits grown from thiourea-containing solutions exhibit formation of three-dimensional islands atop initially flat plates, reflecting a two-stage growth mechanism.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry