Measuring the ABCs of leisure experience: Awareness, Boredom, Challenge, Distress

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The psychometric properties of four aspects of leisure experience (Awareness, Boredom, Challenge, Distress), originally identified and tested with adolescents, Were investigated with college students. Findings indicated that the original subscales were internally consistent and could be applied, with minor modification, irrespective of gender ethnicity, college major, or employment. Interrelationships among the four leisure constructs of Awareness, Boredom, Challenge, and Distress were found to vary as a function of both gender and ethnicity, yielding different profiles of African-American, Asian-American, European-American, and Hispanic-American male and female students.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)131-155
Number of pages25
JournalLeisure Sciences
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2005


  • Awareness
  • Boredom
  • Challenge
  • Free time
  • Leisure experience
  • Leisure measurement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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