Measuring student learning in social justice courses: The diversity and oppression scale

Liliane Cambraia Windsor, Clay Shorkey, Du Wayne Battle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Diversity and Oppression Scale (DOS) is a standardized instrument measuring self-reported student learning about diversity and oppression based on requirements of the Council on Social Work Education. DOS was tested with social work students in 2 major North American universities. Factor structure was examined using exploratory factor analysis (N = 329). Predictive validity was tested with a confirmatory factor analysis and paired sample t-tests (N = 329). Construct validity was tested by examining correlations between DOS and existing scales measuring social justice, oppression, cultural competence, counselor burnout, empathy, and social desirability bias (N = 87). DOS has 4 factors: cultural diversity self-confidence (α =.90; 11 items), diversity and oppression (α =.69; 8 items), social worker/client congruence (α =.84; 3 items), and social worker responsibilities (α =.61; 3 items).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)58-71
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Social Work Education
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2 2015
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


Dive into the research topics of 'Measuring student learning in social justice courses: The diversity and oppression scale'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this